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Chapter 7

[*] Chapter 7 - PSYB65 B65 Memory {Complete} Ted Petit


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Chapter
7

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CHAPTER 7 – MEMORY, PSYB65
DEFININING MEMORY
⁃ability to consciously recall specific event/facts
MODULE 7.1 – TYPES OF MEMORIES
⁃most memory researchers believe that
memory is not a unitary phenomenon
⁃vareity of memory systems that are
subserved by a number of different
neural systems within the brain
⁃existence of multiple memory systems
might account for these
apparent discrepencies in how
we describe memory
What is Memory?
[1]
[D] LEARNING = relatively permanent change
in behaviour as a function of experience
⁃typically demonstrated: (a) by having
organism demonstrate change in behaviour
as a result of experience or (b) showing
that organism recalls or remembers these
experiences and changes its behaviour
accordingly
⁃learning and memory are two sides of the
same coin
⁃called experience-dependent behaviour
Learning and memory studies – Note
⁃inferential

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⁃experimenters watch behaviour and infer
that someone is learning or
remembering on the basis of what
the person does
⁃learning and memory depend critically on each
other
[2]
Way some researchers have suggested to make
division between learning and memory
⁃Learning
⁃concerned
⁃with [D] ENCODING = attending to the
information and [D]
CONSOLIDATION = storing
the memory for later use
⁃Memory
⁃concerned with [D] RETRIEVAL =
retrieving the information from
where it is stored
⁃problems with either encoding ,consolidation or
retrieval of information will result in
impairment in function
⁃unless you know which one in particular is
problem involving, will not be able to
tell whether the problem resulted
from failure to learn or failure to
remember
⁃good storage leads to good retrieval
(see Figure 7.1)

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p209
Sensory Memory and Short-Term Memory
[1]
⁃memory requires information that is gathered
by the senses to be preceived and encoded
Neiser et al
⁃there are short-term, sensory memories [D]
⁃[D] ICONIC MEMORY – visual-based;
short-term visually based
sensory memory
⁃much of what is known about this relies on
using a tachistoscope
⁃device that permits stimuli to be
presented for extremely
short periods of time
⁃[D] ECHOIC MEMORY – sound-based
sensory memory
ICONIC MEMORY
[2]
Sperling's experiments
1.⁃subjects
⁃presented with three rows of 4 letters for
50ms
⁃then asked to name all the letters that they
could remember
⁃finding
⁃subjects typically remembered about 3 or 4
of the 12 letters
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