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Chapter 12

PSYB65H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Natural Selection

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Ted Petit

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Chapter 12: Humans, Human Brains,
and Evolution
Evolution of Humans
Evolutionary Theory
Lyell and Smith studied fossils
oEarth was much older than had previously been thought
Historical Theory of Evolution
Variation, inheritance, and differential reproduction
Historical theory of evolution
oOriginal theory of evolution
Modern synthetic theory of evolution
oCurrent version of evolutionary theory
Modern Synthesis
Natural selection operates on phenotypes, only genotypes are transmitted from
generation to generation
oEg. you cannot grow to be 6’ as your genotype says if you are deprived of
Evolution of the Nervous System
Endocast – mould of the inside of the skull
Evolution and Behaviour
Proximate vs. Ultimate Cause
Proximate cause
o“How” questions
oDescribe the internal mechanisms that underlie a behaviour characterized
as the immediate cause of the behaviour
Ultimate cause
o“Why” questions
oDescribe the evolutionary basis behind a behaviour
oDescription of what makes a given behaviour adaptive
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