PSYB65H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Ventral Root Of Spinal Nerve, Voluntary Action, Frontal Lobe
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The 10% myth is just a myth. Started with Flourens and Lashley where they damaged animal brains up to
90% and animals could still do basic functions and this was than generalized to hmans and popularized
through famous individuals. However still a myth
Psychology – study of behavior, and attempt to describe them explain and predict, or even change
Neuropsychology – study of relation between behavior and brain activity
- Clinical neuropsychology – concerned with psychological assessment, management, and
rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury
- Experimental neuropsychology – how human behavior arises from brain activity, which includes
explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to
damaged neural components.
o Also called cognitive neuropsychology or cognitive neuroscience
We study history because
- It provides insights into development of science. Gives us info about what is left to discover
- Illustrates many instances within discipline in which researchers were wrong about nature of
- Empedocles was a philospopher. Believed heart was souroce of human behavior –
- Aristotle thought heart was source of thought and sensation. Argued brain served as radiator
cooling blood. (actually blood cools brain) and heart is not actual source of behaviour
- Hippocrates and Galen said brain is responsible – cephalocentric hypothesis/brain hypothesis
o But they were wrong about how it worked. Galen thought ventricles and cerebrospinal
fluid = cognition)
- Ancient people knew about the importance of brain. There’s been evidence of surgery
performed through skull (trephination)
- Early theories did not recognize brain for cognitive functions but for passive interpreter of
- Descartes presented a reflexive theory of control of behaviourin which he described the flow of
animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments. Accounted for reflexes and
involuntary behaviours but not voluntary behavior
- Descrates believed voluntary behaviours depended on the rational decision making soul located
in pineal gland. Only part of brain that doesn’t come in a pair.
- Pineal surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid.
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