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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Emotion

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Chapter 9: Emotion
Module 9.1 Emotion
What Is Emotion?
Emotional states have two components: the physical sensation of the emotion and
the cognitive experience or feeling of the emotion itself.
Basic Emotional States
One of the first individuals to recognize the significance of basic emotional states in
humans was Charles Darwin he said emotional stress occur innately in children
and there are universal emotional states that all humans express
The two limitations to Darwins study were:
1.He did not perform cross-cultural observations
2.He did not suggest emotional states being localized in the brain
Ekman said that for an emotional state to be considered as basic it must:
1.Distinctive facial expression
2.Distinctive physiological state
3.Facial expressions and physiological states that occur together and are
relatively difficult to separate
4.Almost instantaneous onset of the facial expression and physiological state,
which lasts for only a brief duration.
5.Distinctive eliciting stimuli
6.Automatic appraisal of the eliciting stimuli, not a result of deliberate,
cognitive appraisal
7.Similar expressions of emotional states in the related primates.
These theories can be problematic because:
oSome valid emotions that do not have a corresponding unique facial
expression (jealously, greed, lust)
www.notesolution.com
oEmotional states are personal so it is difficult to be sure what an individual is
experiencing without a linguistic confirmation to go along with it
oThe other eight additional basic emotional states that Ekman suggests there
might be are: awe, contempt, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, interest,
shame, and surprise.
The Adaptive Value of Emotional States
Emotional states act as signals to ensure that behaviours occur appropriately,
especially in social situations
With social anxiety, we want to be liked by other members in the group
Secondary emotions are emotions that do not have characteristic facial expressions
eg. Shame and pride but they have significant adaptive value they both relate to
status and within the group
Darwin hypothesized that the constancy of facial expressions in nonhuman animals
also serve some adaptive purpose
We are willing to attribute emotional states to other mammals because we evolved
from a common ancestor and therefore share many neural systems for the
expression of emotional states
Theories of Emotional States
to understand emotional states , we need to understand how external stimuli
produced the emotional state
The theories of emotional state include: James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard Theory,
Schachter-Singer theory, the somatic marker theory (proposed by Damasio) and the
appraisal theory (proposed by Arnold)
James Lange Theory
Here, the cognitive aspects of emotional states are secondary to the physiological
response
Emotionally provocative stimulus -Physiological response/emotion Cognitive
experience
Cannon-Bard Theory
www.notesolution.com
Walter Cannon argue that the cognitive aspect of emotional states occurred too
quickly to result from monitoring physiological responses
He suggests that cognitive aspects of affect could be experienced even when
individuals could not sense any physiological changes
He also suggested that the physiological states that accompanied emotional states
also accompanied other physiological states example: fear and illness produce
nausea and sweating but individuals with the flu do not interpret themselves as
being afraid.
Theory suggests that an emotion-inducing stimulus activates the thalamus, which
then simultaneously activates the cortex and the hypothalamus
Emotionally provocative stimulus activation of thalamus cognitive experience
or feeling
physiologicalresponse or
emotion
This theory suggests that although cognitive and physiological aspects of emotional
states occurs simultaneously in most individuals, it is possible for these components
of emotional states to be dissociated
Schachter-Singer Theory
In this theory, the brain constructs emotion similar to other experienced sensations
Similar emotions can produce different feelings depending on the context of the
event
In a classic experiment:
oHave the group received an injection of adrenaline and the other half of the
group received a placebo injection
oOf the experiment group, some were told side effects would result in
pounding heart and dry mouth (informed condition)
oSome were told that the vitamin might make them itch or give them a
headache (misinformed condition) and some where told nothing about any
side effect (uninformed condition)
oParticipants were placed into situations that were either happy or angry
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9: Emotion Module 9.1 Emotion What Is Emotion? Emotional states have two components: the physical sensation of the emotion and the cognitive experience or feeling of the emotion itself. Basic Emotional States One of the first individuals to recognize the significance of basic emotional states in humans was Charles Darwin he said emotional stress occur innately in children and there are universal emotional states that all humans express The two limitations to Darwins study were: 1. He did not perform cross-cultural observations 2. He did not suggest emotional states being localized in the brain Ekman said that for an emotional state to be considered as basic it must: 1. Distinctive facial expression 2. Distinctive physiological state 3. Facial expressions and physiological states that occur together and are relatively difficult to separate 4. Almost instantaneous onset of the facial expression and physiological state, which lasts for only a brief duration. 5. Distinctive eliciting stimuli 6. Automatic appraisal of the eliciting stimuli, not a result of deliberate, cognitive appraisal 7. Similar expressions of emotional states in the related primates. These theories can be problematic because: o Some valid emotions that do not have a corresponding unique facial expression (jealously, greed, lust) www.notesolution.com o Emotional states are personal so it is difficult to be sure what an individual is experiencing without a linguistic confirmation to go along with it o The other eight additional basic emotional states that Ekman suggests there might be are: awe, contempt, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, interest, shame, and surprise. The Adaptive Value of Emotional States Emotional states act as signals to ensure that behaviours occur appropriately, especially in social situations With social anxiety, we want to be liked by other members in the group Secondary emotions are emotions that do not have characteristic facial expressions eg. Shame and pride but they have significant adaptive value they both relate to status and within the group Darwin hypothesized that the constancy of facial expressions in nonhuman animals also serve some adaptive purpose We are willing to attribute emotional states to other mammals because we evolved from a common ancestor and therefore share many neural systems for the expression of emotional states Theories of Emotional States to understand emotional states , we need to understand how external stimuli produced the emotional state The theories of emotional state include: James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard Theory, Schachter-Singer theory, the somatic marker theory (proposed by Damasio) and the appraisal theory (proposed by Arnold) James Lange Theory Here, the cognitive aspects of emotional states are secondary to the physiological response Emotionally provocative stimulus -Physiological responseemotion Cognitive experience Cannon-Bard Theory www.notesolution.com
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