Textbook Notes (381,336)
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PSYB65H3 (484)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 9

chapter 9

23 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Chapter Nine
Emotion is experienced win the self, although emotional state of an individual can be communicated
to others
Emotions vary in intensity and degree
Plato and Aristotle: head was for reason, liver for desire, heart for anger
Aristotle: temperature changes of heart= changes in emotional state; emotion occurred only when
intellect engaged, whereas passion more instinctive
Now: emotions are product of brain+ emotional states are product of both conscious and unconscious
processing
What is Emotion?
Emotional states have 2 components: 1) physical sensation of emotion; 2) cognitive experience, or
feeling, of emotion itself
i.e. when angry, have physical sensation of heart pounding, dry mouth, increase in blood pressure, +
feeling of anger
to perceive emotional states, humans adept at monitoring physiological changes in their bodies+ in
bodies of others i.e. changes in heart rate, blood pressure
also self-monitor subjective cognitive states-why emotions that result in increases in heart rate, i.e.
anxiety, happiness-rarely mistaken for ea other
process cognitive +physical aspects of emotional states in distinct neural circuits-> work in concert to
produce unified percept of emotion
emotional states produce behaviours, both internal+ external
Emotional states produce internal changes associated w autonomic nervous system i.e.
increases/decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, stomach motility (i.e. butterflies), perspiration
External motor responses i.e. verbal statements, facial expressions, thoughts related to experience
Emotional states in others can provoke emotional states in ourselves-> often react emotionally+
experience feelings in response to emotional states in others
Basic Emotional States
Charles Darwin: one of first individuals to recognize significance of basic emotional states in humans
Book- The Expression of the Emotion in Man and Animals
www.notesolution.com
Suggested that emotional states occur innately in children+ not learned-> based on own children and
colleagues in other countries
Suggested universal emotional states that all humans express, primarily through invariant facial
expressions
Facial expressions evolved from similar expressions in nonhuman animals and served some adaptive
purpose
2 limitations to Darwins theory: 1) did not perform cross-cultural observations but relied on
anecdotal reports; 2) did not suggest that emotional state was localized w/in brain
One of the first systematic cross-cultural studies of facial expressions: studied emotional expressions
of Fore tribe in remote part of New Guinea-> never exposed to Western culture i.e. videotape,
photographs
Presented Fore w photographs of Europeans making faces characteristic of specific emotional states
Fore asked to match faces to stories that illustrated particular emotional states+ to guess how people
in photograph felt
Reasoned that if emotional displays culturally mediated/learned, then among divergent groups of
people, should be sig variance in emotional facial displays+ in interpretation of these displays
Results: Fore accurate in matching faces w stories+ attributing emotional states to expressions in
photographs
Fore also made facial expressions similar to those of Europeans in response to emotional stimuli
Effects replicated in variety of cultures, children, individuals w brain damage, nonsighted individuals
Even babies young as 4 mos. evaluate emotional expressions of others
Individuals make same facial expressions to express same feelings
Universal basic emotions that occur in all humans-> mediated by similar areas of brain
View of basic emotional states still controversial+ even on what emotions constitute basic emotional
states
i.e. happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust= basic emotions; some consider surprise not as
emotion but reflex
Ekman suggests that for emotional state to be considered as basic, must exhibit following 7 elements:
oDistinctive facial expression
www.notesolution.com
oDistinctive physiological state
oFacial expressions+ physiological states that occur together+ are relatively difficult to
separate
oAlmost instantaneous onset of facial expression+ physiological state-> last for only brief
duration
oDistinctive eliciting stimuli
oAutomatic appraisal of eliciting stimuli; not result of deliberate cognitive appraisal. Appraisal
not desired or deliberate, as it is automatic
oSimilar expressions of emotional states in related primates
Using elements problematic b/c some presumably valid emotions w no corresponding unique facial
expressions i.e. jealousy, greed, lust
Scientific problem w attributing emotional states to nonverbal individuals (babies, other primates)
b/c emotional states subjective+ personal, difficult to be sure what an individual is experiencing w/out
corresponding linguistic confirmation
even Ekman suggests additional 8 basic emotional states that do not meet his criteria: awe, contempt,
embarrassment, excitement, guilt, interest, shame, surprise
The Adaptive Value of Emotional States
some emotional reactions to specific stimuli are learned responses to situations that the individual has
encountered
other phobias are innate
snake and spider fears are extremely common cross-culturally
common phobias+ fears elicited by stimuli that are relevant to survival
Evolved mechanisms to produce fear of specific dangerous stimuli-> imp. in our evolutionary history
Other emotions also motivate us to perform certain behaviours that may be adaptive i.e. social anxiety
(fear of speaking in group) is not fear of being attacked/danger but consequence of desire to be liked
by other members of group-> status+ access to resources=reproductive success
Social anxiety allows to act to ensure conformation to group norms
b/c humans are social species, success depends on social skills+ on correct interpretations of social
situations
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter Nine Emotion is experienced win the self, although emotional state of an individual can be communicated to others Emotions vary in intensity and degree Plato and Aristotle: head was for reason, liver for desire, heart for anger Aristotle: temperature changes of heart= changes in emotional state; emotion occurred only when intellect engaged, whereas passion more instinctive Now: emotions are product of brain+ emotional states are product of both conscious and unconscious processing What is Emotion? Emotional states have 2 components: 1) physical sensation of emotion; 2) cognitive experience, or feeling, of emotion itself i.e. when angry, have physical sensation of heart pounding, dry mouth, increase in blood pressure, + feeling of anger to perceive emotional states, humans adept at monitoring physiological changes in their bodies+ in bodies of others i.e. changes in heart rate, blood pressure also self-monitor subjective cognitive states-why emotions that result in increases in heart rate, i.e. anxiety, happiness-rarely mistaken for ea other process cognitive +physical aspects of emotional states in distinct neural circuits-> work in concert to produce unified percept of emotion emotional states produce behaviours, both internal+ external Emotional states produce internal changes associated w autonomic nervous system i.e. increasesdecreases in heart rate, blood pressure, stomach motility (i.e. butterflies), perspiration External motor responses i.e. verbal statements, facial expressions, thoughts related to experience Emotional states in others can provoke emotional states in ourselves-> often react emotionally+ experience feelings in response to emotional states in others Basic Emotional States Charles Darwin: one of first individuals to recognize significance of basic emotional states in humans Book- The Expression of the Emotion in Man and Animals www.notesolution.com Suggested that emotional states occur innately in children+ not learned-> based on own children and colleagues in other countries Suggested universal emotional states that all humans express, primarily through invariant facial expressions Facial expressions evolved from similar expressions in nonhuman animals and served some adaptive purpose 2 limitations to Darwins theory: 1) did not perform cross-cultural observations but relied on anecdotal reports; 2) did not suggest that emotional state was localized win brain One of the first systematic cross-cultural studies of facial expressions: studied emotional expressions of Fore tribe in remote part of New Guinea-> never exposed to Western culture i.e. videotape, photographs Presented Fore w photographs of Europeans making faces characteristic of specific emotional states Fore asked to match faces to stories that illustrated particular emotional states+ to guess how people in photograph felt Reasoned that if emotional displays culturally mediatedlearned, then among divergent groups of people, should be sig variance in emotional facial displays+ in interpretation of these displays Results: Fore accurate in matching faces w stories+ attributing emotional states to expressions in photographs Fore also made facial expressions similar to those of Europeans in response to emotional stimuli Effects replicated in variety of cultures, children, individuals w brain damage, nonsighted individuals Even babies young as 4 mos. evaluate emotional expressions of others Individuals make same facial expressions to express same feelings Universal basic emotions that occur in all humans-> mediated by similar areas of brain View of basic emotional states still controversial+ even on what emotions constitute basic emotional states i.e. happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust= basic emotions; some consider surprise not as emotion but reflex Ekman suggests that for emotional state to be considered as basic, must exhibit following 7 elements: o Distinctive facial expression www.notesolution.com
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