Chapter nine: emotion is experienced win the self, although emotional state of an individual can be communicated to others, emotions vary in intensity and degree. Basic emotional states: charles darwin: one of first individuals to recognize significance of basic emotional states in humans, book- the expression of the emotion in man and animals www. notesolution. com. Suggested that emotional states occur innately in children+ not learned-> based on own children and colleagues in other countries. Suggested universal emotional states that all humans express, primarily through invariant facial expressions. Facial expressions evolved from similar expressions in nonhuman animals and served some adaptive purpose. 2 limitations to darwin"s theory: 1) did not perform cross-cultural observations but relied on anecdotal reports; 2) did not suggest that emotional state was localized w/in brain. One of the first systematic cross-cultural studies of facial expressions: studied emotional expressions of fore tribe in remote part of new guinea-> never exposed to western culture i. e. videotape, photographs.