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Chapter 7

chapter 7 detailed

15 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Chapter 7
[MEMORY]
Module 7.1: Types of Memories
Memories
Permanent and erasable
Have limited and unlimited capacity
Conscious and unconscious
Has a duration limited to only a few seconds or lasting a life time
There are a variety of memory systems that are subserved by a number of
different neural systems within the brain
What is Memory?
Learning a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a function of experience
Typically demonstrated by having an organism demonstrate a change in behaviour
as a result of experience or showing that the organism recalls or remembers these
experiences and changes its behaviour accordingly
Learning and Memory = experience-dependent behaviour
Division between learning and memory:
Learning is concerned with attending to the information (encoding) and storing it
for later use (consolidation)
Memory is concerned with retrieving the information from where it was stored
(retrieval) in the brain
Memory is not a unitary phenomenon
Sensory Memory and Short-Term Memory
Memory requires information that is gathered by the senses to be perceived and
encoded
Iconic Memories sensory memories that are visually-based
Echoic Memories sensory memories that are sound-based
Iconic Memory
Iconic memory studies are based on use of tachistoscope which permits stimuli to
be presented for extremely short periods of time
When participants were shown a set of letters (3 rows of 4 letters) for 50 ms
oAsked to name all the letters remembered about 3-4/12 letters
oAsked to name letters from a specific row remembered 3-4 letters of
the specific row
Explanation: participants can direct their remembering to a
particular line of information; participants can remember
specific features of visual information for a short period of time
and were reading their response from a rapidly decaying
visual trace
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 7
[MEMORY]
Delays between viewing letter array and reporting letters
oDelays of approx. 500ms resulted in the largest decrease in
iconic memory
When bright light follows the letter array immediately, it appears as if the
bright light erases the letter trace, as participants cannot remember the
usually 3-4 letters from the array
oSuggests that iconic memory is very fragile and heavily reliant on
peripheral stimuli
Letters are transferred to a more durable format in order for them to
be able to be recalled a short time later
Ionic memory: color, motion, shape
Two sides of the brain function equally well in iconic memory
Echoic memory
Very fragile and temporary memory store
Echoic memory studies participants are typically presented with a series of
brief tones and asked to indicate when they hear a second tone
Loudness of second tone is manipulated
When second tone immediately followed first tone, noise has to be very loud
to be detected
When second tone followed first tone after a long delay, the detected noise can
be much quieter
Echoic memory trace is much stronger immediately after the
perception of a sound
Short-term memory holds information for periods beyond what can be stored by sensory
memory, although like sensory traces, is not permanent
Sensory memory is rapidly converted to a more durable form of memory (short-term
memory)
Can be in any sensory modality visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, olfactory
Short-term visual memory a form of visual memory that differs from iconic memory
and is responsible for holding relevant visual information for slightly longer periods of time
than iconic memory
Short-term auditory memory a form of auditory memory that differs from echoic
memory and is responsible for holding relevant auditory information for slightly longer
periods of time than echoic memory
In presentation of different speech to both ears, one in which presents a number in
which that speech is to be ignored
Performance was best when the interval between the number and the request
from the experimenter was short (less than 5s)
Performance was poorest when the interval was quite long (more than 5s)
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 7
[MEMORY]
There is a limit as to how much information short-term memory can store
Short-term memory can store up to 7 units of information
oContent of information does not affect the amount of units stored
oWhen the number of pieces of information are reduced into chunks, we
are reducing the load on short- term memory
Chunking information improves the ability to hold
larger sets of information in short-term memory
Information in short-term memory is not a permanent store
Is rapidly forgotten, especially if there is a distraction
Brown-Peterson Design: When participants are given 2 sets of information to
remember followed by a distractor task, the participants recalled very few of
the letters in the consonant trigram
oRetroactive interference learning of new material interferes with
the recall of previously learned material
oProactive interference new learning is disrupted by previously
learned material
oTrace discrimination theory- short-term memories begin to
degrade spontaneously over time and that retrieval of short-term
memory requires that the information be distinct from other pieces of
stored information
Sensory memory: duration ranging from milliseconds to seconds
Short-term memory: duration of few seconds
Working Memory
Working memory contains information that is going to be acted on or used in some
fashion
Material does not have to come directly from the environment can
manipulate information retrieved from long-term memory stores and does not
require that the event be physically present
Baddeley and colleagues experiment to illustrate properties of working
memory presented a three-component model of working memory with the
primary component (central executive) responsible for controlling attention
and supervision of the two slavesubsystems
Phonological Loop - Responsible for manipulation of linguistic information
Visuospatial Sketchpad Responsible for manipulation of visuospatial
information, such as mental imagery and spatial locations
Properties are best known by: Phonological loop > visuospatial sketchpad >
central executive
oWealth of information about properties of phonological loop reflects
simplicity of phonological loop compared to either visuospatial
sketchpad or central executive
Phonological Loop responsible for manipulation of linguistic information
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 7 [MEMORY] Module 7.1: Types of Memories Memories Permanent and erasable Have limited and unlimited capacity Conscious and unconscious Has a duration limited to only a few seconds or lasting a life time There are a variety of memory systems that are subserved by a number of different neural systems within the brain What is Memory? Learning a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a function of experience Typically demonstrated by having an organism demonstrate a change in behaviour as a result of experience or showing that the organism recalls or remembers these experiences and changes its behaviour accordingly Learning and Memory = experience-dependent behaviour Division between learning and memory: Learning is concerned with attending to the information (encoding) and storing it for later use (consolidation) Memory is concerned with retrieving the information from where it was stored (retrieval) in the brain Memory is not a unitary phenomenon Sensory Memory and Short-Term Memory Memory requires information that is gathered by the senses to be perceived and encoded Iconic Memories sensory memories that are visually-based Echoic Memories sensory memories that are sound-based Iconic Memory Iconic memory studies are based on use of tachistoscope which permits stimuli to be presented for extremely short periods of time When participants were shown a set of letters (3 rows of 4 letters) for 50 ms o Asked to name all the letters remembered about 3-412 letters o Asked to name letters from a specific row remembered 3-4 letters of the specific row Explanation: participants can direct their remembering to a particular line of information; participants can remember specific features of visual information for a short period of time and were reading their response from a rapidly decaying visual trace www.notesolution.com Chapter 7 [MEMORY] Delays between viewing letter array and reporting letters o Delays of approx. 500ms resulted in the largest decrease in iconic memory When bright light follows the letter array immediately, it appears as if the bright light erases the letter trace, as participants cannot remember the usually 3-4 letters from the array o Suggests that iconic memory is very fragile and heavily reliant on peripheral stimuli Letters are transferred to a more durable format in order for them to be able to be recalled a short time later Ionic memory: color, motion, shape Two sides of the brain function equally well in iconic memory Echoic memory Very fragile and temporary memory store Echoic memory studies participants are typically presented with a series of brief tones and asked to indicate when they hear a second tone Loudness of second tone is manipulated When second tone immediately followed first tone, noise has to be very loud to be detected When second tone followed first tone after a long delay, the detected noise can be much quieter Echoic memory trace is much stronger immediately after the perception of a sound Short-term memory holds information for periods beyond what can be stored by sensory memory, although like sensory traces, is not permanent Sensory memory is rapidly converted to a more durable form of memory (short-term memory) Can be in any sensory modality visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, olfactory Short-term visual memory a form of visual memory that differs from iconic memory and is responsible for holding relevant visual information for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memory Short-term auditory memory a form of auditory memory that differs from echoic memory and is responsible for holding relevant auditory information for slightly longer periods of time than echoic memory In presentation of different speech to both ears, one in which presents a number in which that speech is to be ignored Performance was best when the interval between the number and the request from the experimenter was short (less than 5s) Performance was poorest when the interval was quite long (more than 5s) www.notesolution.com
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