Textbook Notes (372,436)
CA (164,174)
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Psychology (9,770)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Nussbaum D (52)
Chapter 3

PSYBO1 - Chapter 3 Notes

6 Pages

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Nussbaum D

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PSYB01 – Chapter 3 Ethics in Behavioural Research Milgram (1965) - psychologist is interested in the question of whether people learn better when they are punished for making a mistake - ask participants to be either a teacher or a learner - leads the learner behind a curtain, attaches a wire to his left wrist and straps both of his arms to the chair so that he cannot remove the wire - the wire causes the learner to experience an electrical shock – the experimenter says that its calibrated so that it will not cause permanent injury but can be painful when its turned up all the way - the experimental procedure has four steps o read aloud a set of word pairs, like “blue box”, “nice day”, “wild duck” and so forth o next you read one of the first words and then a set of four words, one with the original paired word o the learner states the one they think is correct o if he gets the right answer, you say its correct and compliment him and if he gets the wrong one you flip a switch on the console that causes him to feel a shock o after each mistake you flip the next switch on the console moving left to right  increasing in the severity of the shock - as you increase the severity of the shocks you hear grunts and painful groans at high levels from the learner - you also know that as you proceed and indicate your discomfort of administering these shocks the experimentor will inform you that “ the experiment requires that you continue” - twenty five of original 40 subjects complied with the experimenter demands all the way to the top of the scale - this research ultimately has a profound effect on the way that psychologists think about research ethics as it had on the way that psychologists understand obedience and authority - ethical research practises beings with the recognition that our research procedures involve people who deserve as much respect for their well-being as we do Historical Background - Nurenburg war crimes trials o Exposed horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and others in the name of “science” in the 1970’s - Tuskegee Syphlilis study o Collected data to learn about the “natural” course of the illness o Many participants were not informed of their illness and were denied treatment until 1972, even though a cure was available in 1950s - The Belmont Report o Established three basic principles for the protection of human subjects  Respect for persons  Beneficence – minimize harm and maximize benefits  Justice – distributing benefits and risks of research fairly - these principles were translated into specific regulations that were adopted in 1991 as the Federal Policy for Protection of Human Subjects - federal regulation requires that every institution that seeks federal funding must have an institutional review board that review research proposals o the regulation requires that this board have members with diverse backgrounds Ethical Principles - APA ethics code contains 151 enforceable Ethical Standards and 5 General Principles - The general principles are meant to there to capture the disciplines moral vision and are consistent with the Belmont Reports three principles - Violations of the code can be investigated by the APA ethics committee and lead to sanctions ranging from a reprimand to expulsion - 5 General Principles are: o Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficiance  Benefit those whom they work and take care to do no harm  Safeguard the rights and welfare of whom they interact with professionally and other affect persons  Because they might affect the lives of others, they are alert to guard against personal, financial, social, organizational or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influence - Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility  Establish trust with who they work with  Have professional standards of conduct, clarify their roles, obligations, accept responsibility for their actions and manage conflicts that could lead to harm  Cooperate with other professionals  Concerned with ethical compliance of colleagues - Principle C: Integrity o Promote accuracy, honesty, truthfulness in the science, teaching and practise of psychology o Do not cheat, steal, fraud, subterfuge, or misrepresent o Avoid unwise or unclear commitments o If there is deception – they maximize benefits and minimize harm - Principle D: Justice o Fairness and justice entitle persons to access and benefits from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in processes, procedures and services conducted by psychologists o Take precautions to ensure no unjust practices - Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity o Protect the rights and welfare of person’s or communities o Respect cultural differences and are not biased on age, gender, identity, race, etc. o - Four headings that reflect the 5 APA principles o To achieve valid results o To maintain professional integrity o To protect research subjects o To encourage appropriate application Achieving Valid Results (Principle B) - we have no business asking people to answer questions, submit observations or participate in experiments if we are seeking to verify or existing prejudices or making others take action for our personal beliefs - the goal of validity – motivates and justifies are investigations - our approach – set aside prejudice to learn more about the human behaviour and potentially contribute to knowledge - Example: Milgram devised experiments to study the process of obedience in a way that was realistic to participants and still allow variables to b
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