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Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

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Chapter 1  Maturation: natural unfolding of development over the course of growth  Children intentionally try to understand and explore the world around them CONTINUITY VS DISCONTINUITY  Continuous process: each new event builds on the last one; smooth; no abrupt changes; gradually  Discontinuous process: series of discrete steps or stages INDIVIDUAL VS CONTEXTUAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES  Interactionist viewpoint: both individual and contextual factors matter RISKS TO HEALTHY DEVLOPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESILENCE  There can be biological and also environmental risks  Children responds differently o Many suffer developmental issues o Sleeper effect: Some cope with initially but suffers later in life o The ones who face risks seems to cope with challenges better later in life RESEARCHING ACROSS CULTURES  Provides information on how development is effected by the culture the child is brought up in MAIN THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT STRUCTURAL-ORGANISMIC THEORY-------FREUD AND PIAGET  Freud was interested in emotions where as Piaget was interested in thinking (intellectual)  Definition: organism goes through certain discontinuous stages through development which is believed to be universal PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY  How the experiences of early childhood effect the development of adult personality  Id, ego, superego  ERIK ERIKSON PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY: series of *8* stages o Infancyearly childhoodplay ageschool ageadolescenceyoung adulthoodadulthoodMature age PIAGET THEORY  The theory states that 2 things are needed for intellectual development o Organization: child’s understanding of the world changes in an organized way throughout o Adaptation: as the mind becomes increasingly adapted to the world  *4* Stages of development o Infants: sensory and motorpreschooler: mental structures and symbols school years: logic adolescence: reasoning LEARNING THEORY-------B.F.SKINNER AND BANDURA BEHAVIOURISM (B.F.SKINNER)  The same principles of learning shape development in childhood and throughout life  Classical and Operant conditioning positive and negative reinforcement COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (BANDURA)  Children learn through observing and imitating  They SELECT specific behaviours to imitate  4 cognitive processes: attendretain (in memory) reproduce (should be capable of repeating)motivated INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY  Flow of information through cognitive system; inputoutput DYNAMIC SYSTEMS THEORY  Integrated systems interact to aid development CONTEXTUAL THEORY SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY-----VYGOTSKY  Impact of social and cultural experiences on a child’s development BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL THEORY  Understanding the relationship between the individual and the environmental systems and also the relationship between the various environmental systems  MicrosystemMesosystemExosystemMacrosystemChronosystem THE LIFESPAN THEORY  Historical factors that may influence psychological development  Age cohort affect: individual born at the same year or during the same general historical period of time ETHOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY THEORY ETHOLO
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