PSYC12 Textbook chapter 5
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Chapter 5: Old Fashioned Versus Modern Prejudice
-Stereotypes were coming to be understood as attitudes (negative evaluations rather
than pictures in our head) that some people endorse but others do not.
-If the basis of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination was a negative attitude (and
not something inherent about being human), then if we can understand the nature of
those attitudes we can understand the nature of stereotyping and prejudice and then
being a much better position from which to address ways to reduce or eliminate
stereotyping or prejudice.
WHERE HAVE ALL THE BIGOTS GONE?
-FROM KATZ AND BRALY TO CIVIL RIGHTS, AND BEYOND
Katz and Braly’s (1933) landmark study, researchers obtained their first view of
the content of racial stereotypes that Caucasians held about African Americans
[White college students were asked to indicate whether various traits (84 in all)
described Caucasians or African Americans]
Certainly the changes in the social, legal and political climate of the US
seem to correspond to the changes in Caucasian’s self reported
stereotypes of African Americans.
Research suggests that stereotypes are activated automatically upon
encountering the stimulus (group label, or other indicator of the group) and can
old a wealth off affective and other cognitive information that drives the
stereotype that cannot be represented on the adjective checklist.
-ARE LOW-PREJUDICE PEOPLE REALLY LOW-PREJUDICE?
Other researchers suggest that Katz and Braly procedure does not, as
commonly believed, measure knowledge about stereotypes, but rather personal
beliefs about the truth of the stereotype.
Studies suggest that although personal beliefs in negative stereotypes of African
Americans appear to have decreased, knowledge of the culture stereotype of
African Americans appears to remain the same. Thus, Caucasians rather
unanimously know about the negative things (and few positive things) that are
stereotypically associated with African Americans via their early learning from
parents or through other exposure to such information in society. Yet what has
seemed to change is their willingness to personally believe, and also overly
express, such negative racial attitudes.
Stereotypes have not changed, but the form in the way they are expressed has.
So it is more subdued, and subtle.
-Three major theories of contemporary forms of prejudice and racism that attempt to
explain the origins of the ambivalence that Caucasians experience in their attitudes
toward African Americans:
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