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Chapter 3

PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Pink Elephants, Spreading Activation, Aversive Racism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 Feeling Versus Thinking in the Activation and Application of Stereotypes
1. Mood
1.1. Affect plays a major role in the way that information about social groups and group members is
processed
1.2. Types of Intergroup Affect
1.2.1. Incidental affect affect that arises in situations unrelated to the intergroup context
1.2.2. Integral affect affect that originates within the intergroup situation and involves the
stereotyped outgroup. This type of affect can also arise from merely thinking about the
outgroup
1.2.2.1. The former is defined as affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the
intergroup context, and the latter is affect that is elicited within the intergroup
context and involves the stereotyped outgroup
1.2.3. Chronic outgroup affect One’s stable feeling toward the outgroup
1.2.4. Episodic outgroup affect one’s affective reaction to a specific member of the outgroup
1.3. Chronic Outgroup Affect
1.3.1. Attitude object any idea, object, or person about which one forms an attitude
1.3.2. This idea holds true for the notion of outgroup attitudes
1.3.3. Allport defines stereotype as ‘a fixed idea that accompanies a category’
1.3.4. Because one’s outgroup attitude was believed to be a stable evaluation of the outgroup
and its members, it was assumed that any evaluation of the outgroup member in the
future, regardless of the context, would be a direct result of the simple recall of the
perceiver’s stored evaluation of the outgroup member
1.3.5. Each time the attitude object is perceived or remembered, the evaluation will trigger
beliefs and other information associated with the object, as well as enduring feelings
associated with the attitude object
1.3.6. The affect that one feels toward the outgroup, as a result of one’s enduring attitude
toward the outgroup can be termed chronic outgroup affect
1.3.6.1. This affect is different from affective reactions to an interaction with a specific
member of the outgroup
1.3.7. Aversive racism used by Gaertner & Dovidio to describe a type of racism in which the
individual believes they are non-prejudiced, but they still harbor negative feelings about
the outgroup
1.3.7.1. If people can do this in a rationalizable fashion, these individuals may express
negative attitudes toward African Americans yet feel no affective consequences from
doing so, thereby preserving the self from threatening conflict-related negative
affect
1.3.8. People in ingroups are:
1.3.8.1. 1) assumed to be more similar in beliefs
1.3.8.2. 2) evaluated more favourably
1.3.8.3. 3) the recipients of more positive behaviour by the perceiver than are members
of outgroups

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1.3.8.4. 4) found to be more attractive by the perceiver
1.3.9. When it comes to low-prejudice individuals, they feel like they possess egalitarian values.
When situations arise that makes negative feelings toward outgroups salient, low-
prejudiced individuals try to dissociate themselves from these feelings and often act more
positively in ways that will convince them and others that they are not prejudiced
1.3.10. The most common negative affective state that has been investigated is anxiety,
because it is commonly experienced by individuals in an intergroup interaction
1.3.10.1. Anxiety has a disruptive effect on the behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of the
outgroup member and the perceiver. This anxiety can also lead to increased
stereotyping by the perceiver, an avoidance of future intergroup interaction, and
attempts by the perceiver to control others
1.3.10.2. The amount and conditions of intergroup contact determines whether the
individual will experience anxiety when interacting with the outgroup
1.3.10.3. When there has been minimal contact, or contact has been characterized by
conflict, the individual will tend to feel more anxiety prior to or during the intergroup
interaction
1.3.11. Dijker’s research suggests that an important determinant of the type of chronic racial
affect that the perceiver feels in the intergroup context is the degree to which the
outgroup member is culturally dissimilar from the perceiver
1.3.11.1. 4 main types of emotions: positive mood, anxiety, irritation, and concern
1.3.12. When groups are similar, anxiety will decrease and positive mood increase
1.3.13. When groups are dissimilar, negative mood will increase
1.3.14. Emotions that we feel about the outgroups is related to the characteristics of the
outgroups
1.3.15. Episodic Outgroup Affect
1.3.15.1. One’s intergroup-related affect can also be a result of a specific interaction with
a specific individual member of the outgroup (or imagined interaction)
1.3.15.2. Episodic interactions with outgroups can often have a strong impact on an
individual’s chronic, enduring outgroup affect, and, it is believed, the individual’s
enduring attitudes toward the outgroup
1.3.16. Incidental Affect
1.3.16.1. Feelings that have no origination associated with the outgroup can be
characterized as incidental affect
1.3.16.2. Affect in one context can influence social judgments in another context
1.3.16.3. Then it may be reasonable to suggest that incidental affect can subsequently
influence an individual’s proclivity (tendency) to use stereotypes in social judgment
1.3.16.4. Research has shown that a video that ignites incidental sadness has an impact
on participants’ subsequent judgments of characteristics associated with outgroups
1.3.16.5. In sum, it appears that affect induced in a context unrelated to the outgroup can
have an impact on attitudes toward and judgments about the outgroup
1.4. Influence of Positive Affect
1.4.1. Positive affect appears to influence how people categorize others
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