PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Stereotype Threat

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Published on 25 Feb 2013
PSYC12 Inzlicht & Schmader
Chapter 1 Introduction
1. What causes the achievement gap?
1.1. The debate about this in popular culture often involves either nature or nurture, biological and genetic
explanations, or one based on culture and socialization
1.2. On the nurture side racial, ethnic, and religious minorities and women are products of sociocultural
environments that frustrate the development of the appropriate skills, values, and motivation needed for
1.3. Both nurture and nature arguments share the presumption that a majority of people, because of ethnic, racial,
or gender background, lacks the potential to achieve success to the same degree as Asians and whites
1.4. Social stereotypes explain why the marginalized populations hold back from their full potential even when
education, personal values, and genetic predispositions are matched
1.5. Research suggests that the mere existence of stereotypes asserting the intellectual inferiority of marginalized
groups creates a threatening intellectual environment for stigmatized individuals
2. Stereotype Threat
2.1. Stereotype threat a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk, by dint of their actions or
behaviours, of confirming negative stereotypes about their group
2.2. Aronson and Steele published an empirical article in 1995 that is now hailed the modern classic on stereotype
2.3. Both academia and members of the public care about stereotype threat
2.4. Stereotype threat avoids the nature vs. Nurture trap by suggesting that situations themselves can bring about
apparent group differences in performance
2.5. Stereotype threat also has broad applicability. The theory could be applied to many different groups and to
many different situations
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