PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Stereotype Threat, Symbolic Power, Intersectionality

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Published on 25 Feb 2013
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PSYC12 Inzlicht & Schmader
Chapter 12 Social Class and Test Performance, from stereotype threat to symbolic violence and vice versa
1. People who are rich have higher IQs than do the poor
2. There is a strong positive correlation between SAT scores and parental income
3. Some argue that this is hereditary; rich kids have higher IQs because they inherit smart genes from smarter parents
4. The opposite view of this is that IQ is the consequence rather than the cause of social class; poor kids have lower IQ
because they are materially deprived and go to substandard schools
5. Stereotypes About Social Class
5.1. Social psychology has long neglected discrimination by social class
5.2. People from lower socioeconomic class (SES) were portrayed as unintelligent, uneducated, unmotivated, and
irresponsible
5.3. The poor form one of the few social groups targeted by a clearly negative stereotype
6. Stereotype Threat and Social Class
6.1. Stereotypes of intellectual inferiority can affect intellectual achievement
6.2. When people from low SES were told by the researcher that the test was a measure of cognitive abilities, they
performed worse than high SES peers. However when it is mentioned just as a simply laboratory exercise, there
were no difference in abilities
6.3. There are two effects, a stereotype threat and a stereotype lift. When someone from low SES is primed in a
threatening way (e.g., this test measures the intelligence of the poor), they will perform worse. In the same
diagnostic study, the rich participants tend to do better than they did without the prime. This is called the
stereotype lift
7. Intersectionality and Stereotype Threat
7.1. Intersectionality refers to the reality that groups hold multiple statuses in society
7.2. This can explain why some debilitating effect of stereotype threat occurs for only certain combinations of
identities (e.g., a disruption in a room full of women taking math test only affect the Latino women)
7.3. Intersectionality advocates conceptualizing identity not as a personal variable but more as a social process
involving groups’ positions in the social structure
7.4. Research shows that by creating a social hierarchy with different status and privilege was enough to induce
stereotype threat effects on IQ scores
7.5. Thus, social categories define the structural relations that shape individual, social, and institutional practices
8. From Stereotype Threat to Symbolic Violence
8.1. According to the initial formulation of stereotype threat, it is not a motivational trait of stigmatized individuals;
it is a predicament brought into the testing situation by the stereotype
8.2. Long-term relations of domination that define class, race, and gender relations are characterized by 2 features:
symbolic domination and the fact that they are institutionalized
8.2.1. To maintain superiority above all other ethnicities, race, religion, and social classes, the rich white men
justified their dominance through the creation of ‘intelligence’
8.2.2. The idea of intelligence as a stable and individually owned characteristic was also manufactured for that
purpose
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