PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Group Dynamics, Mate Value, Appraisal Theory

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
PSYC12 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice
humans have a tendency to form groups
membership in a group can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations, gender,
power, and other factors
by doing so, their daily lives are easier
eg. division of labor
basic building blocks of society
DISADVANTAGES
mate competition and mate retention
group members tend to favour their own groups (ingroups) over other groups to which they do
not belong (outgroups)
even when group membership is based on the most arbitrary criteria (minimal group), people
showed preference for members of their own group
may have adaptive utility from evolutionary and practical perspectives
they form basis for negative feelings about other groups (prejudice) and for believing that
certain characteristics are associated with other groups (stereotypes), often because the outgroup
members are perceived to be antithetical to the ingroup's welfare or values
may underlie more severe negative behaviour toward other groups
negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour
virtually all of history's wars, battles, and other acts of group violence have been driven by
some form of prejudice, stereotyping, and/or discrimination
Defining Stereotyping
Lippman's “Stereotype”
tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms as having similar
attributes based on a common feature shared by each
tell us what social information is important to perceive and to disregard in our environment
content of stereotypes is largely determined by the culture in which one lives
Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral
researchers regarded this as very negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups
seen as outward indicator of irrational, nonanaytic cognition
external sign of the stereotyper's moral defectiveness
Allport: stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category
others argued that stereotyping should be examined as a normal psychological process
The Social-Cognitive Definition
Brigham defined it as a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution, which
is considered to be unjustified by an observer
controversial
Hamilton and Trolier: cognitive structure that contains the perceiver's knowledge, beliefs and
expectations about a human group
too broad and inconsistent with traditional definitions
sounds more like definition of schema
Ashmore and Del Boca: set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people
more consistent but restricts the meaning to a generalization about a group of people
most social-contiion researchers today define stereotype in this fashion
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Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
cultural stereotype: shared of community-wide patterns of beliefs
individual stereotype: beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group
one's cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as one's individual stereotype about
the group
individual stereotypes are thought to be most directly related to that person's specific thoughts,
feelings, and behaviour toward the group
Is a Stereotype an Attitude?
Attitude: general evaluation of some object
usually viewed as falling somewhere on a good-bad or favourable-unfavourable dimension
three components: behavioural, affective, and cognitive
majority agree that stereotypes represent only the cognitive portion of any intergroup attitude
other two components of an intergroup attitude, affect and behaviour, correspond to prejudice
and discrimination, respectively
Discrimination is negative behaviour directly toward an individual based on their membership
in a group
Although a stereotype is not an attitude, an intergroup attitude is composed of one's thoughts or
belies about, feelings, toward, and behaviour toward a particular group
Positive vs. Negative Stereotypes
stereotypes are generalizations about a group
no need resent being the object of positive stereotyping
eg. all asians excel in math and science
Defining Prejudice
can be taken literally to indicate a prejudgement about something
further level, it can suggest an evaluation, either positive or negative, toward a stimulus
finally, another definition is one in which the individual has a negative evaluation of another
stimulus
an evaluation is an attitude
Prejudice as Negative Affect
Allport defined it as an antipathy [intense dislike] based upon a faculty and inflexible
generalization
it may be felt or expressed
may be directed toward a group as a whole, or toward and individual because he is a member of
that group
Prejudice as an Attitude
can be baed on affective (e.g. Anger), cognitive (e.g., beliefs linking hostility to the outgroup),
or behavioural (e.g., avoidant or hostile) sources and can result in cognitive, behavioural, or affective
expressions of prejudice
best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is a lack of positive emotions about it
suggested that stronger, more obvious forms of prejudice are more likely to be baed on strong
negative emotions, whereas more subtle types of prejudice may be based on an absence of positive
feelings about the outgroup
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Document Summary

Disadvantages mate competition and mate retention group members tend to favour their own groups (ingroups) over other groups to which they do even when group membership is based on the most arbitrary criteria (minimal group), people. Brigham defined it as a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution, which. Lippman"s stereotype attributes based on a common feature shared by each. The social-cognitive definition is considered to be unjustified by an observer expectations about a human group too broad and inconsistent with traditional definitions sounds more like definition of schema. Discrimination is negative behaviour directly toward an individual based on their membership. Although a stereotype is not an attitude, an intergroup attitude is composed of one"s thoughts or. Cultural and individual stereotypes the group feelings, and behaviour toward the group. Is a stereotype an attitude? and discrimination, respectively in a group belies about, feelings, toward, and behaviour toward a particular group.

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