Only when the perceiver wants to quickly evaluate the target in the picture
do stereotypes become activated as a useful means of arriving at an attitude
toward the target.
INGROUP AND OUTGROUPS
How you partition people in these groups depends on your current, salient
motives, fears, goals, and expectations. (PAGE 29)
Individuals who are part of an out-group are perceived to share similar
characteristics, motives and other features. However, when it comes to our
own in-groups, we like to think that our groups comprise unique individuals
who happen to share one or two common features (e.g. ones occupation)
In-group bias (favouritism)
Perceiving out-group’s as all alike, and our in-groups as diverse helps us
satisfy two major goals: we greatly simplify our social environment by
categorizing others in that way, and we enhance our self concept by thinking
that we do not belong to a homogenous, cookie cutter type of group in which
all members are similar in many dimensions.
In favouring our in-groups, we also tend to put down or attribute negative
characteristics to out groups.
However, research has shown that the assumption that we derogate out
groups is not necessarily supported.
The dimension on which people are viewed as in-group or out-group
members does not need to be a meaningful one (e.g. racial, political) in
order for in-group and out-group biases to occur.
Remember minimal groups (not the usual group structure)
We rather implicitly remember positive information about our in-groups and
negative information about out groups. It becomes automatic early in life.
Boldry and Kashy: indicated that out-group homogeneity tends to be strong
but that in-group favouritism is not as universal we thought. Their data
suggest that group status moderates the tendency to engage in in-group
favouritism, such that low status groups tend to show out-group favouritism
and high status groups showed in-group favouritism only on one of several
dimensions. FROM NATURAL GROUPS.
By age 5 children show distinct recognition of, and preferences for, some
groups over others, (including race and gender preferences).