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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 1: Introduction to The Study of Stereotyping and PrejudicePSYC12
INTRODUCTION THE STUDY OF STEROTYPING AND PREJUDICE
Groups needed for survival, specialized and given power
Innately, we prefer own group
Ingroup: own group
Outrgroups: groups we dont belong to
Minimal group: arbitrary criteria for group
oE.g. randomly assigned to group A/B
oStill favour own group
Preference for own group can lead to prejudice, and intergroup conflict
Prejudice: negative feelings about other groups. Biased eval of other group
Stereotypes: thinking certain things are always true about a group
Prejudice and stereotyping have been the basis for wars
DEFINING STEREOTYPING
Lippmanns Stereotype
Coined by reporter Lippmann, called it: thinking of everyone as the same
We have examples in our head, to simplify the world
Stereotypes tell us what to see, and what to ignore
oThus confirming stereotypes
Culture can det. our stereotypes
Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral
Adorno saw stereotype as rigid thinking
Early on, stereotypes were said to be lazy thinking, or morally wrong
Later, removed judgment on stereotypes
oE.g. Allport said stereotypes were exaggerated beliefs about a category
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 1: Introduction to The Study of Stereotyping and PrejudicePSYC12
The Social-Cognitive Definition
In 70s ppl began seeing stereotype as natural and automatic part of cognition
Stereotype doesnt have to be unjustified, it is any generalization
Schema: cognitive structure, knowledge about something, its attributes and
relations btw them
otoo broad to be defined as stereotype
diff between schema and stereotype: schema is knowledge and expectations and
feelings towards it
oe.g. Schema of Liberians: Liberians work w/ books, help you with books and
library, and feel positive about them b/c they help
Stereotype of Liberians: they’re all introverted and dress poorly
Best defn. of stereotype: beliefs about personal attributes about group of ppl
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
Cultural stereotype: shared beliefs about others
Individual stereotype: individuals beliefs about others
Katz and Braly adjective rating scale tends to assess cultural stereotypes
oWhen answers are given to choose from, its inaccurate test of individual
stereotype, b/c it may differ from the answers
oDont know if they believe in stereotypes, can only know if they have
knowledge
Individual stereotypes may be better predictor of future behaviour and attitude
towards other groups
Is a Stereotype an Attitude?
Attitude: general evaluation of something
oIs pos./neg.
onot the same as stereotype
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 1: Introduction to The Study of Stereotyping and PrejudicePSYC12
o3 parts: behaviour, affect and cognitive
Intergroup Attitude Stereotype (Cognition)
Prejudice (Affect)
Discrimination (Behaviour)
Discrimination: Behaving neg. towards person b/c they’re in a different group
Positive versus Negative Stereotypes
Stereotype isnt bad or good, its just a generalization
DEFINING PREJUDICE
Prejudice is a pos./neg. evaluation of something
Evaluation is an attitude
Prejudice as Negative Affect
At first was seen as affect part of intergroup attitudes
oWas negative feelings toward others b/c they belonged to another group
Later, ppl saw prejudice as attitude
Prejudice as an Attitude
In 60s/70s prejudice seen as attitude
oi.e. evaluation of stimulus
olike attitudes, has behavioural, cognitive and affective components
Lack of positive emotions/affect is best predictor of attitudes
oNot what they think of others, or negative emotions
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1: Introduction to The Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice PSYC12 INTRODUCTION THE STUDY OF STEROTYPING AND PREJUDICE Groups needed for survival, specialized and given power Innately, we prefer own group Ingroup: own group Outrgroups: groups we dont belong to Minimal group: arbitrary criteria for group o E.g. randomly assigned to group AB o Still favour own group Preference for own group can lead to prejudice, and intergroup conflict Prejudice: negative feelings about other groups. Biased eval of other group Stereotypes: thinking certain things are always true about a group Prejudice and stereotyping have been the basis for wars DEFINING STEREOTYPING Lippmanns Stereotype Coined by reporter Lippmann, called it: thinking of everyone as the same We have examples in our head, to simplify the world Stereotypes tell us what to see, and what to ignore o Thus confirming stereotypes Culture can det. our stereotypes Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral Adorno saw stereotype as rigid thinking Early on, stereotypes were said to be lazy thinking, or morally wrong Later, removed judgment on stereotypes o E.g. Allport said stereotypes were exaggerated beliefs about a category www.notesolution.com
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