Chapter 3: Feeling Versus Thinking In the Activation and Application of
•Affect influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of
many social representations are primed and which characteristics in a given representation
•Types of Intergroup Affect
oIncidental Affect: affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup
Incidental sad affect increased the tendency of participants to use negative
Incidental happiness affect increased the likelihood of favorable stereotypes
of their own ethnic ingroup.
oIntegral Affect: affect that is elicited within the intergroup context and involves the
stereotyped outgroup and can arise merely from thinking about the outgroup.
oChronic Outgroup Affect: stable and enduring feelings toward the outgroup as a
Attitude Object: anything about which one forms an attitude.
Because one’s outgroup attitude was believed to be a stable evaluation of the
outgroup and its members, it was assumed that any evaluation of the
outgroup member in the future would be a direct result of the simple recall of
the perceiver’s stored evaluation of the outgroup member.
Each time the attitude object is remembered, the evaluation will trigger
beliefs and other information associated with the object as well as enduring
feelings associated with the attitude object.
oEpisodic Outgroup Affect: a reaction within an interaction with a specific outgroup
member and can also result from the imagined interaction with an individual from
It may be possible to change negative chronic outgroup affect toward the
outgroup by the opposing impact of positive episodic outgroup affect.
•Aversive Racism: although the overt form of hostility and prejudice toward an outgroup may
be much less prevalent, prejudice continues to exist in a more subtle form.
oPeople in the ingroup are:
Assumed to be more similar in beliefs
Evaluated more favorably
Recipients of more positive behavior by the perceiver than are members of
Found to be more attractive by the perceiver.
oLow-prejudice individuals believe that they possess egalitarian values and their
negative feelings are kept out of awareness.