oThe reader will note that stigma encompasses all the more familiar
situations where prejudice is shown (i.e. racial, religious, gender,
age, sexual orientation), but it also covers any physical,
Behavioural, psychological marker that elicits negative evaluation
oGoffman denoted three types of stigmas:
1.Abominations of the body (e.g. physical deformities, being
2.Blemishes of individual character (e.g. drunkenness)
3.Tribal stigmas of race, nation, and religion (e.g. prejudice
against another race).
•Research indicates that individuals faced with external threats show
stronger in-group identification
oExample: with Jewish persons, African Americans, and women.
•Doosje and Ellemers found that people differ in the degree to which they
identify with their stigmatized group.
•High identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their
group, even when-especially when-it has a negative image.
oHigh identifiers derive much of their self-esteem from their
identification as a group member.
They are much more likely to seek collective strategies
against group threat.
In it for the long run, super loyal.
oLow identifiers, are much more likely to dissociate themselves from
the group, especially when the group has a negative image.
No special affinity toward, or derive no self esteem from,
Quite prepared to let the group fall apart, when the group is
threatened or has a negative image.
Low identifiers are thus much more individualistic and
opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with
the group when it would positively affect their social identity.
•Individuals in stereotyped groups often find themselves ever vigilant
about not behaving in ways that confirm stereotypes.