Textbook Notes (381,082)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYC12H3 (303)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 2: Origin and maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice
p. 39
Prejudice: does not only mean negative affect directed toward an outgroup, can also refer to
preference for or favouring of ones ingroups
Benefit of stereotyping: help anticipate motives, attitudes, behaviours of others
Stangor and McMillian, study, memory tends to be better for expectancy- incongruent than for
expectancy-congruent information
oProne to remember expectancy or stereotype-consistent information
oOwn groups remember stereotype-inconsistent
Sherman- stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate the processing of both stereotype-
consistent and inconsistent information when cognitive capacity to process information is low
Subcategories because stereotypes-inconsistent member of stereotypical group is seen as
unrepresentative of whole group, stereotypes that apply to group dont appear to apply to
particular group member
oEnables one to think of oneself as not prejudice
Illusory correlations: perceiving a relationship between variables that are only weakly correlated
or not correlated at all
oCan lead to formation and maintenance of stereotypes
Stangor and Ford- people can be identified as either perceiving others in accuracy-oriented or
expectancy-confirming
oa-o tend to be much less likely to rely on stereotypes in their evaluations of others
oe-c: acting from defensive orientation, because individuals are seeking to defend
prejudices and pre-existing beliefs
social-identity theory (SIT)
ostill have need for positive self-regard, feels motivated and cognitive biases in social
perception aimed at helping us feel good about ourselves
o2 ways to obtain positive self-regard:
1.By ones own achievements
2.By groups which one belongs
oThinks own group is superior to others
oHighly motivated to show ingroup bias (favouritism) for own groups, motivated to
negatively evauate outgroups
Outgroup homogeneity: belief that members of outgroups are more similar to each other than are
members of ones ingroups
Optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT)
oAversive to us to be too extreme in needs for uniqueness and belongingness
oWill feel isolated and alone if we feel strong uniqueness at the expense of belongingness
Scapegoat theory
oWhen an individual becomes thwarted from particular goal, may feel anger, irritation or
disappointment
oBecause both frustrating agent and outgroup arouse similar emotions, tend to become
associated in individuals memory
Relative deprivation
oWhen people:
1.Decide that they want Z,
2.Compare themselves with similar other who have Z,
3.They feel entitled to Z, they will feel deprived,
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Description
Chapter 2: Origin and maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice p. 39 Prejudice: does not only mean negative affect directed toward an outgroup, can also refer to preference for or favouring of ones ingroups Benefit of stereotyping: help anticipate motives, attitudes, behaviours of others Stangor and McMillian, study, memory tends to be better for expectancy- incongruent than for expectancy-congruent information o Prone to remember expectancy or stereotype-consistent information o Own groups remember stereotype-inconsistent Sherman- stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate the processing of both stereotype- consistent and inconsistent information when cognitive capacity to process information is low Subcategories because stereotypes-inconsistent member of stereotypical group is seen as unrepresentative of whole group, stereotypes that apply to group dont appear to apply to particular group member o Enables one to think of oneself as not prejudice Illusory correlations: perceiving a relationship between variables that are only weakly correlated or not correlated at all o Can lead to formation and maintenance of stereotypes Stangor and Ford- people can be identified as either perceiving others in accuracy-oriented or expectancy-confirming o a-o tend to be much less likely to rely on stereotypes in their evaluations of others o e-c: acting from defensive orientation, because individuals
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