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CA (167,133)
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PSYC12H3 (303)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 6: Experience Prejudice
Stereotyping and prejudice occur in a dynamic social context involving perceiver and target
reacting to each other
Social Stigma
Goffman: unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as being indicators of stigma
Stigmas- characteristics that mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled, or generally
undesirable
Goffman: 3 types of stigmas- abominations of the body (overweight), blemishes of individual
character (drunkenness), tribal stigmas of race, nation, religion (prejudice against another race)
Group Identification
Individuals faced with external threats show stronger ingroup identification
Doosje: people differ in degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group
High-identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their group, even when it has
negative image
oDerive much of self-esteem from identification as group member
oTend to make it clear that they are fully committed, loyal group members
Low-identifiers, much more likely to dissociate themselves from group, especially when group is
negative
oFeel no special affinity toward or derive no self-esteem from group
oDoosje: low identifiers seem quite prepared to let group fall apart when group is threatened
or has negative image
oMuch more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with
group when it would positively affect social identity
Stereotype Threat
Steele: stereotype threat- occasionally, individuals in stereotyped groups will engage in
performance-limiting behaviour in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected
poor performance on stereotype-relevant dimension
Effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with group
about which stereotype exists and in individuals who are self-conscious of their stigmatized status
People under stereotype threat actually fare worse physiologically than their non- threatened
counterparts
Black participants in a threatened condition showed significantly higher blood pressure than non-
threatened counterparts
Steele: debilitating effects of stereotype threat may account for gap in subsequent achievement
between similar scoring African Americans and Caucasians
oWhen Black participants believed that difficult verbal test was measure of intellectual
ability, they underperformed compared to Whites in ability-diagnostic condition but
performed as well as Whites in non-diagnostic condition
Walton: stereotype lift- non-stigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement
when they engage in downward comparison between themselves and member of a stereotyped
outgroup
Aronson: stereotype vulnerability- tendency to expect, perceive, and be influenced by stereotypes
about ones social category
othose higher in stereotype vulnerability ten to be least in touch with quality of their
performances on stereotype-relevant task
some found stereotype threat effect in Whites who take Implicit Association Test (finding
preference for Whites) arising from anxiety about obtaining score that might indicate they are
racist
stereotype threat effects can be reduced significantly when people from stereotyped group are
individuated
www.notesolution.com
study found that simply reminding women about great achievements that other women had made
tended to significantly reduce stereotype threat on math text scores
Cheryan & Bodenhausen examined influence of salient positive stereotypes on ones task
performance
oIf stereotype about your group is that you do well on task, could that stereotype potentially
enhance or impair ones performance
Disidentification, individuals disengage their identity from achievement domain in question, like
self esteem and sense of self competence is preserved and shielded from negative effects of
associating identity with performance on stereotype relevant dimension
o Allows stigmatized to retain self-esteem
oExample: woman may disidentify with achievement in science and math and African
Americans may disidentify from academics
Major & Schmader suggest that by either devaluing importance of stereotype threat domain or
discounting validity and self diagnosticity of outcomes on stereotype threat dimension, stigmatized
can psychologically disengage from stereotype threat dimension and protect self esteem
Academically achieving blacks were more likely to experience feelings of depression and anxiety
compared with peers who were not academically successful
Self-Esteem
Studies failed to show decreased self esteem for stigmatized groups blacks, physically challenged,
developmentally disabled or mentally disabled
Perceived controllability of stigma: individuals who believe stigmatizing condition is controllable
may be more likely to feel that negative evaluations of them are justified and will be more likely to
feel lower self esteem
Believing that ones stigma is uncontrollable will lead stigmatized individual to resist blame for
stigma
Denial of Discrimination
Often stigmatized individuals able to deny that they have been personally discriminated against or
they have suffered prejudice, discrimination or other mistreatment
Acknowledges that group suffers discrimination and prejudice in society but claims they have not
personally had negative experiences
Major: degree to which stigmatized individual believes in ideology that legitimizes existing status
differences between groups will influence their perceptions of personal communication
oThe more person does not endorse such ideology and instead believes in individual mobility
of group members, the less likely it is that negative behaviour from nonstigmatized person
will be interpreted as instances of discrimination/prejudice
Kaiser: stigmatized who make such attributions to discrimination perceived as complainers and
generally less favourably evaluated by others
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Perceivers expectations about target eventually lead that target to behave in ways that confirm
those expectations
Allport: may occur in minority because if minority acknowledged that their group had as much
worth as other groups in society, it would bring about tremendous psychological discomfort in that
it causes stigmatized individual to question structure of social reality
Majority members stereotype influences how they interact with member of minority, these
behaviours elicit behaviours that fit majoritys initial expectancies. May be difficult to ignore
Do not occur when target is aware of perceivers expectations
4 ways stigmatized can maintain self-esteem:
oAttributing negative evaluations and reactions of others to prejudice
oDevaluing outcomes on which their group compares poorly with other groups
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 6: Experience Prejudice Stereotyping and prejudice occur in a dynamic social context involving perceiver and target reacting to each other Social Stigma Goffman: unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as being indicators of stigma Stigmas- characteristics that mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled, or generally undesirable Goffman: 3 types of stigmas- abominations of the body (overweight), blemishes of individual character (drunkenness), tribal stigmas of race, nation, religion (prejudice against another race) Group Identification Individuals faced with external threats show stronger ingroup identification Doosje: people differ in degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group High-identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their group, even when it has negative image o Derive much of self-esteem from identification as group member o Tend to make it clear that they are fully committed, loyal group members Low-identifiers, much more likely to dissociate themselves from group, especially when group is negative o Feel no special affinity toward or derive no self-esteem from group o Doosje: low identifiers seem quite prepared to let group fall apart when group is threatened or has negative image o Much more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with group when it would positively affect social identity Stereotype Threat Steele: stereotype threat- occasionally, individuals in stereotyped groups will engage in performance-limiting behaviour in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on stereotype-relevant dimension Effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with group about which stereotype exists and in individuals who are self-conscious of their stigmatized status People under stereotype threat actually fare worse physiologically than their non- threatened counterparts Black participants in a threatened condition showed significantly higher blood pressure than non- threatened counterparts Steele: debilitating effects of stereotype threat may account for gap in subsequent achievement between similar scoring African Americans and Caucasians o When Black participants believed that difficult verbal test was measure of intellectual ability, they underperformed compared to Whites in ability-diagnostic condition but performed as well as Whites in non-diagnostic condition Walton: stereotype lift- non-stigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in downward comparison between themselves and member of a stereotyped outgroup Aronson: stereotype vulnerability- tendency to expect, perceive, and be influenced by stereotypes about ones social category o those higher in stereotype vulnerability ten to be least in touch with quality of their performances on stereotype-relevant task some found stereotype threat effect in Whites who take Implicit Association Test (finding preference for Whites) arising from anxiety about obtaining score that might indicate they are racist stereotype threat effects can be reduced significantly when people from stereotyped group are individuated www.notesolution.com
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