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Variations on a Theme -- article 2 summary

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Sisi Tran

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Variations on a Theme:
Culture and the Meaning of Socialization Practices and Child
-Parents’ perceptions of and responses to their children’s emotions play a
critical role in the evolution of a child’s psychological well-being or
-Three parental behaviours to make a prominent contribution to the
development of social and emotional competence:
1. Parents’ reactions to children’s emotions
2. Discussion about emotions
3. Parental expression of emotion
These 3 components of child-parent interactions converge with other
individual differences (e.g. child temperament) to make demonstrable
contributions to the development of competence/maladjustment.
-The importance of context in understanding and evaluating parental
socialization of emotion and child social competence. Context includes:
Parents’ idiosyncratic values and goals for their children
Meaning embedded in dyadic transactions between child and
Cultural values for what constitutes effective childrearing and child
-Without the study of cultural variations, we cannot understand the
functional significance of children’s emotional behaviours and parents’
socialization practices.
The research on socialization of emotion
-Focused on the values of middle- to upper class Americans of
European descent
-There are many parents who appear not to share quite the same values
as those represented in the child development literature
Cross-sectional study of Tamang children in rural Nepal
-Observed caregivers’ initial reactions to children’s anger and
Children around 2-3 years of age – caregivers quickly attended to
coddled when negative emotion is expressed supportive/nurturant.
Children older than 2/3 – caregivers did not react supportively; either
ignored or were critical of the child (e.g. mocked/scolded)
-Research was stimulated by the observation that Tamang people have
been noted for their ability to maintain positive, compassionate and
egalitarian relationships.
This ability is a key element of the definition of social competence
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