PSYC14H3 Chapter Notes -Divergent Thinking, High-Context And Low-Context Cultures, Tom Cruise

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30 Oct 2013
Ch8: cognition and perception
o East Asian art looks diff from western art bc ppl from these cultures are seeing the world differently
Analytic and holistic thinking
- taxonomic categorizations are common among westerns whereas thematic categorization is common
among east Asians
- analytic thinking: focus on objects and their attributes, these objects are understood in terms of their
component parts; more common in western cultures
- holistic thinking: characterized by an orientation to the context as a whole; gives attention to the relation
among objects and the surrounding; more common in east Asian
- analytic thinkers focus attention on separate parts of the scene whereas holistic thinkers direct their
attention more broadly, across an entire scene
- Rorschach experiment: European-americans described what they saw based on a single aspect of the
card, whereas chinese-americans described it based on the entire image on the card
- Analytic thinkers show field independence and holistic thinkers show field dependence
- Outgoing ppl are more field dependent
- East Asians do poorly in the Rod and Frame task (bc it requires you to be field independent)
- Experiment to study field dependence (p. 294):
1) when the fish was in its original bg, Japanese were more likely to recognize the fish. In contrast,
when the fish was shown in a novel bg, the americans were more likely to recognize the fish
2) Japanese judgments of the target’s emotional expression were influenced by the expressions of the
ppl in the bg
- Chinese ppl make more saccades than did americans
- Saccades : quick eye movements that shift ppl’s gaze from one point to another
- American drawings had lower horizons whereas Asian drawings were at a higher horizon
Understanding other ppl’s behaviors
- analytic thinking is linked with ppl’s inner attributes such as personalities
- explaining ppl’s behavior by considering how the situation is influencing them is linked with holistic
- westerners are more likely to make dispositional attributions whereas east Asians are more likely to
make situational attributions
The fundamental attribution error
- when we see ppl acting, we assume it is bc of their underlying dispositions, and we tend to ignore the
situational constraints that might be driving their behavior
- americans make more dispositional attributions and Indians make more situational attributions
Reasoning styles
- east Asians are more likely to use holistic reasoning in a situation where there is a conflict btwn an
analytic and a holistic solution
- in situations with no conflict, westerners engage in holistic reasoning and east Asians should be able to
rely on analytic reasoning strategies
- reasoning styles also depend on the kinds of info ppl perceive to be relevant to a task (p. 307)
Toleration of contradiction
- bc everything is perceived to be connected with everything else and constantly in flux, real contradiction
ceases to exist
- naïve dialecticism: if “A” “not A”, and if “A” is always changing into “not A”, then “A” is no longer
in contradiction with “not A”
- for chinese ppl, contradictions exist in the world and is accepted; hence, they are not motivated to get rid
of the contradictory statements
- when asked to describe abt themselves, chinese ppl were quite contradictory and said that they are both
high and also low in self esteem. Whereas for westerners, changes are more occurring in more linear
ways, for eg, if the earth has grown warmer in the past few decades, it will likely rise again next yr
Creative thinking
- creativity is the generation of ideas that are both novel, useful and appropriate
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