Study guide chapter 12
III. Living in Multicultural Worlds
a. Changing Times
x Interaction and integration among people and institutions of different nations.
Information Technology (google)
International business (IKEA)
x Global Civilization: Boundaries of a society are not defined spatially, but exists in terms of the
connectedness between people
x Who is influencing who?
o The information is with industrialized world and they are sharing it online, but it is influencing
people across borders.
ii. Cross-Cultural Marriages
x When parents are from two distinctly different cultures,
o Children are exposed to aspects of both cultures
o They develop multicultural identities
o Existence of multiple psycho-cultural systems of representations
x Parents may continue to maintain cultural practices at home
x Peers & education system transmit beliefs/values of new culture
x Role reversal when children provide parents with info about ways of new culture
o Hard on parents to surrender power in order to learn from children
o Hard on children as cultural intermediaries, while still being socialized by parents
b. Psychological Adjustment
x Acquiring a new language
x Learning new interpersonal and social behaviors
x Becoming accustomed to new values
x Becoming a member of a minority group
c. Experiences of Multiculturalism and Acculturation
x Acculturation is the process by which people migrate to and learn culture that is different from their original
i. People move to new countries for many reasons
x To be closer to their families.
x To seek fortune and fame.
x Because they are refugees and have no choice.
x To study abroad and move back when they are done.
x Some move as children on the decision of their families.
ii. People move to different kinds of environments
x Some move to pseudo-cultural heavens where everyone is the same culture
x Some move to homogenous neighbourhoods where they are the only ones who appear different.
x Some move to environments that actively discriminates against people from their cultures
x Some move to expatriate neighbourhoods where everyone has migrated from different parts of the globe.
iii. People move to places with varying cultural distance (cultures that vary in similarity to heritage
culture ± example America and Canada has less cultural distance)
x from rural community in their country to an urban center in a new culture.
x To places where dominant language, religious practices, cultural practices are the same.
x To places that vary from their heritage cultures in every aspect.
d. Acculturation and Enculturation
x Acculturation - Process by which people learn a culture that is different from their original (or heritage)
x Enculturation- Process by which people maintain their original culture of origin.
i. What happens when people move to a new culture?
x Moving to new culture involves psychological adjustments. This adjustment may occur in a wide variety of
domains ± new language, learning new interpersonal and social behaviour, becoming accustomed to new
values, becoming a membeURIPLQRULW\JURXSDGMXVWLQJRQH¶VVHOI-concept.
ii. Changes in Attitudes toward Host Culture
x Migrants are defined as those who move from a heritage (original culture) to a host culture (new culture)
x Includes those who intend to stay temporarily (sojourners)
x Includes those who intend to move permanently (immigrants)
x Attitude of new migrants regarding a culture changes over time
iii. Acculturation Curve
x U-shape curve.
x Y axis indicates how positive migrants feel about the host country.
x It has three Phases:
o Honeymoon period ± migrants have a very positive time trying to discover the new culture.
o Crisis of cultural shock ± between 6 to 18 months ± migrants begin to have a very negative view of the
culture because the earlier thrill of having novel and exciting experience wears off.
Immigrants feel cultural shock ± feeling of being anxious, helpless, irritable, and in general
homesick that one experience on moving to new culture.
Some people may decide to quit their sojourn and end up with very negative feelings of their
o Adjustment Phase ± tends to extend over a number of years. People become more and more proficient
in functioning in their new environment.
x Research indicates that a person may go through the same curve when they return to their own culture.
x Another research indicates that there is an L-shaped curve for people who try to adjust in a homogenous
society. These people do not recover from the crisis phase. It is possible that the crisis stage is much
longer and people recover later, but no research has been done on it yet.
iv. Stories of Multicultural Fusion
v. Multicultural Identity
1. Blending vs. Frame-Switching
x Tendency for bicultural people to evince psychological tendencies in between those of their two cultures is
x Tendency fro bicultural people to switch between different cultural selves is termed as frame-switching.
a. Berry et al. (1992)
b. LaFromboise et al. (1997)
o Integration ± Identity becomes blended and merged into one coherent
identity, views development of multi-cultural identities as additive.
o Alteration ± Involves switching back and forth among cultural identities
depending on the fit of identity with the immediate context.
o Synergy ± Entirely new identities are forged as a result of contact with
different cultural models; cannot e reduced to sum of its parts ± cultural
c. Benet-Martinez et al. (2002)
o Low Bi-cultural Identity Integration: Difficulty merging two cultures into a cohesive sense of
identity, sensitive to specific tensions between cultural orientations.
o High Bi-cultural Identity Integration: Find it easy to integrate both cultures in everyday lives,
described as having a compatible cultural identity.
d. Hong et al. (2001)
x Many bicultural individuals report that two internalized cultures take turns in guiding their thoughts and
x It suggests that:
o Internalized cultures are not necessarily blended
o Absorbing a second culture does not always involve replacing the original culture with the new one.
vi. Some Pitfalls of Acculturation
x Not all habits picked up during acculturation are inherently desirable.
x Not all cultural habits lead to positive outcomes, and immigrants who pick up these less desirable habits
will also suffer consequences
e. Psychological Factors that May Affect Identity Formation
i. Migration Motivation ± Why are people moving?
ii. Cultural Distance ± How successful people are at learning a new culture depends on how much
they need to learn. Culture distance is the difference between two cultures in their overall ways of life. More
culture distance someone needs to travel, more difficulty that person will have acculturating.
iii. Need for Cognitive Closure ± is a desire to have definite answers to a question. People high in
NCC adopt an acculturation strategy that is affected by their early experiences in the host culture. Those who
interacted with compatriots had a harder time acculturating than those who interacted with the locals in the first
iv. Acculturative Stress ± Where do people move and what external stressors are faced by people.
v. Prejudice and Discrimination ± Person will not strive to fit into host culture if that culture shows a
JUHDWGHDORISUHMXGLFHWRZDUGVLQGLYLGXDO¶VRZQFXOWXUDOJURXS3HRSOHZLWKdistinguished physical features will
face more prejudice than people who blend in. People with low SES or indigenous population will have more
difficulty acculturating because host culture may not offer them much that they desire. People are more likely to
try to fit into host culture if it values diversity.
vi. Stereotype Threat ± fear that one might do something that will inadvertently confirm a negative
for confirming a negative stereotype, and in doing so, they end up proving the stereotype.
vii. Multicultural Ideologies ± Multi cultural people develop multiple selves. They develop mastery
over selectively activating divergent selves according to different cultural context. How multicultural you are
depends on where you live. People in Canada are more multi cultural than people in America, because
Canada is more accepting of divergent cultures.
Successful acculturation may be more likely with:
o Support and acceptance of newly arrived immigrants
o The advance of cultural pluralism
o Connectedness to racial/ethnic heritage
o General openness to people of other cultural groups
o Cognitive flexibility
o General willingness to interact across cultures
o Commitment to social justice for people from all backgrounds
f. Globalization and Homogenization
x Some argue that Western economic powers may have a dominating influence in the cultural
restructuring of non-Western nations.
exposure may lead to increasing homogeneity.
g. Globalization and Cultural Diversity
x Others argue that globalization will NOT result in homogenization of culture, offering a distinction
between two sets of beliefs.
x Material Beliefs- pertain to ways of making a living or beliefs about the economy