Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC18H3 (200)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Chapter
2

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Chapter 2 – Evolution of Emotions
Darwin believed we were similar to lower animals in terms of emotional expressions
oHe argued that human emotional expressions have some primitive aspects (i.e. hair raising in
fear, show teeth when angry) – evidence that we once existed in a lower and animal-like
condition
Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotion
The engine that drives evolution has 3 parts:
oSuperbundance –animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce
themselves
oVariation – each offspring is somewhat different than others, and differences are passed on by
heredity
oNatural selection – characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are
selected for, disadvantageous characteristics are selected against
Selection pressures
At the core of natural selection are selection pressures, some involve threats or opportunities directly
related to physical survival (i.e. food, warmth, avoid predation & illness)
Hereditary elements = 2 kinds of sexual selection pressures determine who reproduces:
oIntrasexual competition – occurs within a sex for access to mates (usually pronounced in males
i.e. stags lock horns and fight), who over prevails = more likely to pass on desired traits to
succeeding generations
oIntersexual competition – refers to the process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in
the other sex (i.e. seen in the preference women report for males of higher status, therefore more
resources for offspring)
Recently, theorists have proposed that our capacity to cooperate is a powerful determinant of who
reproduces and who survives (i.e. raise offspring in relationships with other people, therefore more likely
to succeed)
Adaptation
Adaptation are genetically based traits that allow organism to respond well to specific selection pressures
and to survive and reproduce (i.e. avoid poisons = we avoid bitterness etc)
oDietary likes and dislikes = bitter, poison = sweet, nutritional
oFinding a healthy and fertile mate
It is disadvantageous to devote resources to the pursuit of mates who have little chance of
reproduction or might bear unhealthy offspring – solution = humans have evolved
preferences for potential mates who show signs of fertility and reproduction readiness
i.e. people find symmetrical faces more attractive (i.e. exposure to parasites in
early development = asymmetrical faces – therefore this guides us to find mates
that have been raised in healthy environments
oan important determinants of whether ones genes are passed n is survival of offspring in infancy
we love and respond to baby-like features (large forehead, big eyes, small chin), their
smiles, coos and laughs etc ensures that parents help offspring reach the age of viability
Not all human traits or behaviours are adaptations (i.e. snoring, nervous leg jiggles serve no evolutionary
function)
Evolution often endows old anatomical and behavioural features with new functions (i.e. animals have
reflec in which they flatten their ears when startled = original function was to protect the ears, also make
them look friendly/approachable
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version