Chapter 4 text book notes

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Published on 23 Jun 2011
Chapter 4 - communication of emotions
Givens and Perper - studied patterns of nonverbal behaviours shown by women and men in
singles bars; attention-getting phase - men show off potential signs of their social status,
women look askance; recognition phase - gaze intently, raise eyebrows, accidental bumps;
keeping-time phase - mirror glances, laughter, posture to assess interest
Ekman and Friesen - organized language of nonverbal behaviour into five categories
emblems - directly translate to words; ex. peace sign, raised clenched fist for black
illustrator - accompanies our speech, makes it vivid and visual; Clintons signature
regulators - use to coordinate conversation; orientation of bodies toward people they
want to start speaking to
self-adaptor - nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention, simply to
release nervous energy
nonverbal expressions or displays of emotion - signals in the face, voice, body, and
touch that convey emotion
Facial expressions of emotion
markers of emotional expressions - fairly brief (1-10 seconds); involuntary muscle
actions; have parallels, or homologues
Darwin - three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance
oprinciple of serviceable habits - expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will
re-occur in the future
oprinciple of antithesis - opposing states will be associated with opposing
oprinciple of nervous discharge - excess, undirected energy is released in random
Tomkins, Ekman, and Izard - distilled Darwins observations into two hypotheses to test
if emotions are universal
oencoding hypothesis - experience of different emotions should be associated with
the same distinct facial expressions in every society, worldwide
odecoding hypothesis - people of different cultures should interpret these
expressions in the same ways
Ekman and Friesen - took 3000 photos of different people as they expressed six
emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise)
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oEkman, Sorenson, and Frieson - showed to five cultures, achieved accuracy rates
between 80 and 90 percent; critics noted the prevalence of American media
through television and film actors
oDashiell method - emotion-appropriate story for each of the six emotions;
supported Darwins ideas about universality
critiques of the hypothesis of universal facial expressions
ogradient - results recognizes some expressions as well recognized universally, and
other expressions less well recognized
oforced choice - forced to label the expression using terms the researchers provided;
using own words to describe
oecological validity - not the kinds of expressions that people routinely judge in
their daily lives; expressions are stylized and exaggerated in study; validity of
recognition for more subtle expressions of emotion
other expressions - contempt (expressed by an asymmetrical tightening of the lip
corners or sneer and conveys a moral disapproval of another; exhilaration - laughter
involving the contraction of the muscle surrounding the eyes
oembarrassment - appeasement-related emotion which signals individuals lower
status; Keltner - facial actions coded in frame-by-frame analyses, coded the 10
seconds of behaviour that occurred after the participant was asked to rest
eyes went down, turned head to the side, and down, smiled as head
movement, looked up with furtive glances and touched his or her face; fluid,
gradual onset and offset times of an involuntary expression
olove - Frank - serves vital commitment function, signalling devotion and
commitment to potential romantic partners; Gonzaga et al. - nonverbal displays of
partners on first date; coherent pattern of smiling, mutual gaze, affiliative hand
gestures, open posture, and forward leans
odesire - signalled in a variety of lip-related actions
opride - Tracy and Robins - signal the opposite of weakness; expansive posture,
head movements up and back
osympathy or compassion - Eisenberg - oblique eyebrows, and concerned gaze;
different from display of distress
facial expressions of emotion coordinate social interactions - more than just signals of
internal states
oinformative functions - emotional experience and expression are sources of
information about the social world
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