PSYC18 TEXTBOOK NOTES.doc

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PSYC18 TEXTBOOK NOTES
CHAPTER 1
Many say that our emotions are base and destructive, and that
the more noble reaches of human nature are achieved when our
passions are controlled by our reason
The epicureans and stoics thought that emotions are irrational
and damaging
During Darwin’s time it was believed that God had given humans
special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely
human sentiments unknown to animals
Darwin was the first to use questionnaires, he would send out
printed questions to missionaries who could observe people in
other cultures, asking them to observe particular expressions
Darwin concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from
habits that in our evolutionary or individual past has once been
useful
Movements of expressions in the face and body are the first
means of communication between the mother and her infant
James-lange: emotion is the perception of changes of our body as
we react to that fact. About the nature of emotional experience
James suggested that our experience of many emotions is the
set of changes of the autonomic nervous system, part of the
nervous system supplies to inner organs like the heart, blood
vessels, stomach and sweat glands
James proposed that emotions give colour and warmth to
experience, without it everything would be pale
Freud suggest that certain events, usually of a sexual kind can
be so damaging that they leave psychological scars that can
affect the rest of our lives
Aristotle said emotions are connected with action, they depend
on what we believe, they are evaluations, so we are responsible
for our emotions because we are responsible for our beliefs and
evaluations of the world
Aristotle had 3 principles of how we persuade others: a hearer is
more likely to believe a good person than a bad one, people are
persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions and people are
persuaded by arguments that seem truthful
In order to persuade, one must know something about the
people to whom you speak, about their values, and about the
effects that speaking may have on them
Our emotional experience are shaped by our judgment and
evaluations
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We experience katharsis of our emotions, meaning purgation or
purification as if one goes to the theater to rid oneself from toxic
emotions or to elevate them
It meant clarification- the clearing away of obstacles to
understanding our emotions
Descartes claimed 6 fundamental emotions- wonder, desire, joy,
love, hatred and sadness- occurring in the thinking aspect of
ourselves that he called the soul
Descartes differentiated emotions from other perceptions about
events that happen in the outside world and perceptions that
arise from events within the body, such as hunger and pain
Perceptions tell us about what is important in the outside world,
and bodily passions like hunger and pain tell us about important
events in the body, emotions tell us what is important in our
souls
Emotions cannot be entirely controlled by thinking, but they can
be regulated by thought, especially thoughts that are true
Descartes suggested that the emotions depend on how we
evaluate events and said that they serve important function
Our emotions are usually functional, but can sometimes be
dysfunctional
Sanguine: blood gives rise to hope and vigor
Phlegmatic: Phlegm gives rise to placidity
Choleric: yellow bile gives rise to anger
Melancholy: black bile gives rise to despair
We understand our emotions differently from those of other
people
Cannon found that it was transection of neural pathways at a
different level that had huge and striking effects on emotions
When the cerebral cortex is detached from the lower parts of the
brain, this results in extreme anger with no provocation
Cortex specifically the subcortical regions acts to inhibit its lower
regions where emotions reside
Hess came up with the idea of implanting electrodes in brain
regions and to electrically stimulating as the animals moved
around freely
Affective defense reaction: the cat in its defense/attack reaction
turns against the nearest person participating in the experiment
Suggested that one region of the hypothalamus was specialized
to organize responses of fighting or fleeing. From another region
of the hypothalamus, stimulation slowed the heart and induced
calmness and drowsiness
Hypothalamus and limbic system are said to be lower, in that
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they were prominent in animals that emerged earlier in the
course of vertebrae evolution
If higher centres are damaged, this control of lower centre may
no longer occur
Emotions are based on appraising evening
Emotions relates self to objects
Unlike perception, which is about what each of us is like in
ourselves, emotions are essentially relational
Gasson said an emotion can be considered as the felt tendency
toward an object judged suitable, or away from an object judged
unsuitable
Appraisals dictate whether the emotion is positive or negative
Impulsive emotions arise if there is no difficulty in attaining or
avoiding an object
Emotion of contention arise when there are difficulties in acting
If an object is judged and if it is present, then the impulse
emotion is love, if an object is judged unsuitable and it is not
present, then the emotion is fear
Tomkin argues that affect is the primary motivational system,
that emotions are amplifiers of drives
The illusion is created by the misindentification of the drive
signal with its amplice
The amplifier is its affective response
Human action and though reflect the interplay of motivational
systems, each capable of fulfilling a certain function, each
potentially capable of taking over the whole person
Emotion is displayed by amplifying one drive signal
Tomkins suggested that changes of facial expressions are the
primary amplifiers of emotions in humans
Arnold and tomkin both has a common idea that emotions as
central to normal functioning
Singer’s theory proposed that emotion as two parts: a bodily
physiological arousal and an appraisal of the kind. Emotion is
produced by arousal and appraisal
Foster found that arousal increasing sexual attraction
Isen found that emotion like happiness has a transferable effect,
makes people more creative in problem solving and induce them
to give more unusual associations to words
Emotion or mood experienced in one situation can affect
behaviour, social judgments, and the intensity of emotions in
other situations
Effect is strongest when the person concerned doesn’t know the
source of their original mood
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Document Summary

James-lange: emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react to that fact. James suggested that our experience of many emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system, part of the nervous system supplies to inner organs like the heart, blood vessels, stomach and sweat glands. Impulsive emotions arise if there is no difficulty in attaining or avoiding an object: emotion of contention arise when there are difficulties in acting. Emotion is produced by arousal and appraisal: foster found that arousal increasing sexual attraction. When you are angry, you have a very clear sense of what: emotional disorders like depression and anxiety lasts for weeks you are angry about or even months, or years, trait: designate any long-lasting aspect of personality. Intrasexual competition: occurs within a sex for access to mates. Assumption that emotions have no rational basis: emotions are states of readiness to act.

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