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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook

Course Code
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 1: Approaches to Understanding Emotions
many thinkers have argued that our emotions are base and destructive
that more noble reaches of human nature are achieved when our passions are controlled by
our reason
the Epicureans and Stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damaging
Nineteenth-century founders
three theorists: Darwin, James, and Freud
Charles Darwin: the evolutionary approach
one of the first to use questionnaires and photographs of naturalist and posed expressions
concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from habits
emotional expressions showed the continuity of adult human behavioral mechanisms with
those of lower animals and with those of infancy
thought emotional expressions were like vestigial parts of our bodies
emotions link us to our past, both to the past of our species and to our own infancy
William James: the bodily approach
when we perceive the object, the exciting fact, the emotion is the perception of changes to
our body as we react to that fact
his theory is really about the nature of emotional experience
the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses
1) stressed that our experience of many emotions, from fear to joy, is the set of changes of
the autonomic nervous system, that part of the nervous system that supplies inner organs
including the heart, the blood vessels, the stomach, and the sweat glands
2) proposed that emotions give “color and warmth to experience
Sigmund Freud: the psychoanalytic approach
proposed that certain events, usually of a sexual kind, can be so damaging that they leave
psychological scars that can affect the rest of our lives
story of Katharina
Philosophical and literary approaches
Aristotle: the conceptual approach
that emotions are connected with action
that they depend on what we believe, that they are evaluations, so we are responsible for
our emotions because we are responsible for our beliefs and valuations of the world
three principles of how we persuade others:
oa hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad one
opeople are persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions
different judgments give rise to different emotions
opeople are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful
emotions shape our judgments and evaluations
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