Chapter 4.doc

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Chapter 4
Nonverbal communicationword like smile, laugh, gaze, and touch seem simple
enough, but they refer to many class of nonverbal behavior.
Eg, smile, there different smiles, with different meaning
We smile to be polite, to signal weakness, to hide inappropriate feelings of
disgust or disapproval, to express romantic attraction
Paul Ekmen and Wallace Friesn organized the language of nonverbal behavior into
five categories
Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words
Emblems vary in their meaning across cultures
Illustrator: nonverbal gestures that accompanies our speech and often make it
vivid and visual
These gestures slightly precede the corresponding words we say
Regulators: noverbal behaviors that we use to coordinate conversation.
People look and point at and orient their bodies toward people whom
they want to start speaking
Self-adaptor: nonverbal behaviors people engage in with no seeming
intention, as if simply release nervous energy
People touch their necks, tug at their hair, jiggle their legs
There are nonverbal expressions or displays of emotion: signals in the face,
voice, body and touch that convey emotion
Facial expressions of emotion
Several characteristics have been identified that differentiate emotional expressions
from other nonverbal behavior
Expression of emotion tend to be fairly brief, typically lasting between 1 and 10
seconds
A polite smile that does not accompany the experience of emotion might be
exceptionally brief, lasting a quarter of a second, or it might endure fro some
time
Facial expressions of emotions involve involuntary muscle actions that people
cannot produce when they feel like it, and cannot suppress even when instructed to
do so
Feighed expressions of anger, therefore, would lack the muscle tightening
around the month
Emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues, in the display
of other species.
Darwin proposed three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the
appearance that they do.
First, according to the principle of serviceable babits, expressive behaviors that
have led to rewards will re-occur in the future
Eg, the furrowed brow, which protect the eyes from blows
Second, the principle of antithesis holds that opposing states will be associated
with opposing expression
Eg, strength and confidence are expressed by expanding the chest and
shoulders where as weakness and uncertainty are expressed by the opposite, a
shoulder shrug
Third, the principle of nervous discharge states that excess, undirected energy is
released in random expressions
Face touches, leg jiggles…
Sylvan Tomkins, Paul Ekman and Carroll Lzard distill Darwin’s observation into two
hypothesis
- Encoding hypothesis – if emotions are universal, the experience of different emotions
should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society
- Decoding hypothesis – if there are universal emotions, people of different cultures
should interpret these expressions in the same ways.
Ekman and Friesh’s six emotions
Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise
- while participant were ask to select from six emotion terms and to match the six
pictures, Across the five cultures, participants achieved accuracy rates between 80
to 90 percent for the six emotions
- But, in these studies, chance guessing, by randomly selecting one term out
of six that actually matched the emotion in the photo would produce accuracy
rates of 16.6%
- Another problem is that, some of those participants had all seen American
media, and so were not really representative of isolated and distinct cultures.
They might become familiar with American culture by watching TV and film
actors
So Ekman take his research to Fore people, who was still live in stone
age, used the “Dashiell method”: which he devised an emotion
appropriate story for each of the six emotions, then he presented photos
of three different expressions along with a story to one of the three
expressions
And also he videotaped fore participants as they displayed facial
expressions they would show in response to the emotion specific story.
Then present this video to us college student, who selected from six
emotion terms the one that best match the fore’s pose in each chip
- The fore achieved accuracy rate between 80-90 percent in identify the
six emotions
- US college students correctly interpreted the pose expressions of the
Fore, with exception of fea and surprise
The implication is that recognition of the six facial expressions used in these
studies is a universal, evoked parts of human nature
There have been several critiques of the hypothesis of universal expressions
First, gradient critique, according to universal hypothesis, facial expressions that
are universal should be produced in much the same way, and be equally
recognizable in all culture
But some like fear and supprise and disgust which are less well recognized by
people in cultures remote from those of the person portraying the expression
Second, is the forced choice, participant were forced to label the expressions using
terms the researchers provided, namely, anger, disgust, fear…
Might participant label the faces in different fashion if allowed to use their
own words?
Third, ecological validity.
This rise the question of whether everyday expressions of anger, disgust…
would look like the expressions in the Ekman and Friesh photos
Ask for more stable expressions of emotion
Ambadar, Schooler and Conn show that people were better recognizeing emotional
expressions from dynamic display, like videochip, which of course come closer to real-
life conditions
Other expression, that are universal too. Recent yes, contempt, and exhilaration
Embarrassment, which signals the individual’s lower status, in particular after
transgressions, so as to bring about social reconciliation
Displays positive emotion:
Moment experience of love is expressed in a coherent pattern of smiling, mutual
gaze, affiliative hand gestures, open posture, and forward leans
Desire is signaled in a variety of lip-related actions, including lip licks, wipes, and
tongue protrusions
For pride, then one would expect expansive posture head movements up and back
The experience of sympathy is correlated with a distinct display, namely oblique
eyebrows and concerned gaze
Russell and his colleagues favor what they call minimum universality, in which
the evidence is strong that some expressions such as the smile of happiness are
recognized worldwide, while foe other expressions the evidence is less strong.
Like embarrassment, shame, pride, love, desire, and sympathy