Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC18H3 (200)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik
Chapter
14

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PSYC18 Chapter 14 Textbook Notes
Chapter 14: Psychotherapy,
Consciousness and Well-being
Psychotherapy therapies and the emotions
Emotions can be vague and unformed, with meanings that only become clear as we
express them to others.
Emotions are our genuine to our most authentic selves
Signs of wrong relations can include strong and disturbed emotions
oPractices and rituals are followed that center on the disturbed emotions.
Western approach to psychotherapy - The therapist tries to work with the client to
make sense of emotion-based symptoms.
Medical approach trying directly to relieve the suffering and anguish of such
symptoms.
The basic idea of psychoanalytical therapy
Freuds therapy was aimed at recalling the trauma, enabling it to become conscious,
allow the emotions associated with it to be experienced and expressed, thus freeing
the patient from the traumas continuing harmful effects.
oNeurotic people suffer from inner conflict: both feeling sexually attracted to
someone and feeling a the same time inhibited by society
Detractors argued that psychoanalysis was less a therapeutic
procedure
Freud proposed a therapy of listening carefully, evenly hovering attention
Therapy’s focus on the emotions
Many clinical psychologists and psychiatrists would describe themselves as eclectic,
which means that they incorporate selected aspects from different variants into their
practice.
Therapy is an interaction with another person in which, as a patient or client, one
can discover some of the properties of ones emotion schemas most typically
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PSYC18 Chapter 14 Textbook Notes
schemas of anxiety, anger and despair and can to some extent change how these
schemas operate.
oIt provides the context of a relationship, which one may experience ones
emotion schema, understand them better, take responsibly for them, and
modify some aspects of ones behaviour accordingly.
Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating
Transference is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental modes that embody
ways of relating to others that have become habitual.
oA set of emotional attitudes toward significant others, from the past, such as
parents
oThey are new editions or facsimiles of the impulses and phantasies which...
replace some earlier person by the person of the physician.
oTransference of positive emotions invites the other into a warm and
cooperative relationship, and the other is then often able to respond warmly
in return.
Psychoanalytic therapy - is designed to recognize transference sand to bring them to
consciousness.
oEmotional schemas that are problematic are often based on intense wishes
bound tightly to beliefs that people hold about what is wrong with them or
how they can never be satisfied.
Core Conflictual Relationship Themes in transference they have gone some way to
showing that when therapies recognize and interpret occurrences of these themes,
the patient makes better progress in therapy.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy: changing emotions by thought
The way we change our emotions can be traced back to the times of:
oepicureans
founder was Epicurus who lived near Athens, around 300 BCE
devoted to the pursuit of pleasure
believed the idea that human beings have a right to the pursuit of
happiness
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PSYC18 Chapter 14 Textbook Notes
thought that one should live in a simple way and enjoy the simple
pleasures, like food and the enjoyment of friendship
shifts in attention from irrational desires to more worthwhile ones
oStoics.
From the stoat
Indifferent to pleasure or pain
The ideas of the stoics were thought to have influenced the acceptance
of Christianity by the romans following the conversion of the emperor
Constantine.
More radical than the epicureans they thought that because
emotions derives from desires, therefore to free ones led from crippling
and destructive emotions, one should extirpate almost all desires.
Beloved that most emotions, especially such emotions as anger,
anxiety and lust are damaging to the self and to the society and so
should be extirpated
The philosophers of Epicurean and Stoic schools developed subtle and profound
understandings of emotions.
Beck developed the cognitive-behavioural therapy it is based on teaching people
how to recognize and avoid errors of evolution about the incidents that lead to
emotions.
Writing in most cultures have been used and become one of the main means for
reflecting on, and becoming conscious of, meaning of emotions.
Emotion-focused therapy: changing emotions by emotions
The only way to change an emotion is by means of another emotion, and this may be
taken as the goal of emotion-focused therapy
oWork on such clues to build some consciously comprehended model of our goal
structure as a part of our sense of self.
oIs to recognize emotions that we have not allowed ourselves to experience
fully enough
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