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Chapter 2

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Neural Oscillation, Neocortex, Bonobo

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Rimma Teper

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Chapter 2 - Evolution of Emotions
evolution offers insights into the nature of emotions
Darwin: we have similar emotional expressions to those of other animals
Charles Darwin: book - On the Origin of Species
evolution is described in three processes
1. superabundance - animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary to reproduce
2. variation - each offspring is somewhat different than others which are passed on by
3. selection - characteristics that allow better adaptation to the environment are selected and
passed on
Selection Pressures
features in the social and physical environment that determine survival and reproduction
fight and flight responses, preference to sweet foods, aversion to bitter foods have developed as a
two types of sexual selection
1. intersexual competition - one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex
2. intrasexual competition - competition for mates within a sex
fitness - the likelihood of surviving and reproducing successfully
increases for those preferred as sexual partners
genetically based traits that allow the organism to cope well with specific selection pressures, and to
survive and reproduce
humans find symmetrical faces more attractive
they signify someone who is resistant to parasites
is it inherent that these people also have good characters
women are attracted to men of higher status because they have more resources for reproduction
men look for women who are healthy and of child-bearing age
full lips, youthful skin, hourglass figure
parents prefer babies who display baby-life cues
laugh, smiles, the softness of skin
Natural Design for Gene Replication
our genes reproduce themselves
our bodies are vessels for passing them o because they cannot reproduce on their own
our genes program us by emotion
ex. emotionally drawn to food that is nutritious
our genes are programmed closely that we respond in reflex
the unconscious effects of our genes
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