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Chapter 4

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Appeasement, Attention Seeking, Aesthetic Emotions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Rimma Teper
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 - Communication of Emotions
Givens and Perper - flirting observations
initial attention seeking phase
men - roll shoulders and raise arms to show developed arms or watches
women - smile coyly, flick their hair, sway their hips
recognition phase
men and women gaze at each other, raise eyebrows, lips pucker, extend eye contact
exploration phase
men and women touch each other on the arm etc.
keeping-time phase
mirror each other's glances, laughs, gazes to assess interest
the more gestures and mirrored, the more interested the person is
FIVE KINDS OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOUR
1. Emblems
nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words
ex. peace sign
vary across cultures
2. Illustrator
a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech to make it vivid and visual
ex. nodding your head to strengthen a point you're making
3. Regulators
nonverbal behaviours that we use to coordinate the conversation
ex. looking, pointing and facing someone to initiate conversation with
4. Self-Adaptor
nervous behaviours that lack intuition
we are often unaware of them
when you show them, people are more likely to believe you are lying
ex. biting your lips, tugging at your hair
5. Displays of Emotion
signals in the face, voice, touch that convey emotion
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION
Markers of Emotional Expressions
1. Expressions of emotion last a few seconds
2. Facial expressions of emotion are involuntary muscle actions
3. Human emotional expressions have parallels in displays of other species
Studies of the Universality of Facial Expressions
Darwin - three principles to explain emotional expressions
1. Principle of Serviceable Habits
expressive behaviours that helped in the evolutionary past and will occur again in the future
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ex. exposed teeth which signalled they were about to attack is now displayed in modern
humans with anger
2. Principle of Serviceable Habits
expressive behaviours will be associated with opposing expressions
ex. dominance - chest expansion, head tilted back, submission - dropped shoulder, bowing of
the head
3. Principle of Nervous Discharge
excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions
ex. face touches, leg jiggles
Darwin - facial expressions are human universals
encoding hypothesis - the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same
expressions in every culture
decoding hypothesis - people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in the
same ways
even tested facial Western in Papua New Guinea with people who had minimal exposure to
Westerners
successful confirming Darwin's thesis (that facial expressions are human universals)
Critiques of the Studies of Universal Facial Expressions
1. Free Response Critique
would these experiments have workers the same if participants were given the choice to label
emotional expressions instead of choosing one of the Western words to describe them
subsequent experimentation showed labels were still similar
2. Ecological Validity
expressions used in Ekman;s experiment were exaggerated
the same facial expression could have different meaning depending on context
Discovering New Facial Displays of Emotion
there are distinct nonverbal expressions for embarrassment, shame, pride, love, desire, sympathy
Self-Conscious Emotions: Embarrassment, Shame and Pride
Embarrassment
gaze aversion - reduces the size of the body and signal submissiveness
smile - sign of appeasement
face touch - covering your face with appeasement
Shame
downward head movement and gaze aversion
Pride
expansive posture
Displays of Positive Emotion: Love, Desire and Sympathy
we form critical attachments with love, desire and sympathy
desire
promotes reproductive interactions
lip licks, tongue protrusions
love
promotes long-term relationships
smiling, open posture
sympathy
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