Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC18H3 (200)
Chapter 4

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Natya Shastra, Weggis, Aesthetic Emotions

Course Code
G Cupchik

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PSYC18 Chapter 4 – Communication of Emotions
- everyone is flirting, all the time: Givens and Perper in singles bars watching men and
women interact
- Initial attention-getting phase (arms, flashy watches), recognition phase (gaze,
provocative brushes), keeping-time phase (mirroring actions)
Five kinds of nonverbal behaviour
- Smiling: different smiles, with different meanings Smile to be polite, hide inappropriate
feelings, express romantic attraction, signal weakness (Single words like smile fail to
adequately describe the language of nonverbal communication
- Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen
oEmblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words (e.g. Peace sign,
shame on you), vary in meaning across cultures,
oIllustrator: Nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech: hand gestures, facial
gestures (raising eyebrows, nodding head)
oRegulators: nonverbal behaviours that we use to coordinate conversation: looking
at person they’re talking to, turnin away when you don’t wish to speak
oSelf-adaptor: nervous beahviours people engage in with no seeming intention
(touching necks, jiggle legs, stroke chins, etc.)
oNonverbal expressions or displays of emotion: signals in the face, voice, body, and
Facial expressions of emotion
- The markers of emotional expressions
o1) Expressions of emotion tend to be fairly brief (1-10 seconds)
o2) Facial expressions of emotion involve involuntary muscle actions that people
cannot produce and cannot suppress even when instructed (pressing lips together
is voluntary)
o3) Emotional expressions should have their parallels or homologues in the displays
of other species
- Studies of the universality of facial expressions
oDarwin proposed three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the
appearance that they do
1) Principle of serviceable habits: expressive behaviours that have led to
rewards will re-occur
2) Principle of antithesis: Opposing states will be associated with opposing
3) Principle of nervous discharge: excess undirected energy is released in
random expressions like face touches and leg jiggles
oDarwin claimed expressions of emotion = human universals Tomkins, Ekman
and Izard categorized it into:
Encoding hypothesis: if emotions are universal, experience of different
emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in
every society, worldwide
Decoding hypothesis: if there are universal emotions, people of different
cultures should interpret these expressions in the same ways
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