The two hemispheres do not communicate, and each remains ignorant of what the other has seen.
The right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, whereas the left is more
ready to interpret experience in terms of language.
Split brain: condition in which the corpus callosum (large bundle of nerve fibers that connects left and right
cerebral hemispheres) has been severed in a surgical procedure to alleviate epilepsy
Stress has many different types, and each different kind promotes a particular kind of emotion, by means of a
specific appraisal process.
First, emotion is a response to evaluative judgments or meaning.
Second, these judgments are about ongoing relationships with the environment and whether the
environment is one of harm or benefit.
Lazarus'sappraisal approach to emotion contains two basic themes:
An event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal.
Beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur.
Plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of
the plans are considered.
Stein, Trabasso, and Liwag'semotion-related appraisal has three aspects:
Gives rise to primaryappraisals, which motivate rapid approach or avoidance responses, correspond
to what is called first movements of emotions.
One system provides an immediate, unconscious evaluation of whether the stimulus is good or bad.
Other systems -secondary, or second movements -provide more deliberate, conscious, complex
assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and what to do about it.
Zajoncproposed that we process stimuli through several different appraisal systems.
If people are presented with subliminal happy or angry faces, they are more likely to be swayed in their
When we are consciously aware of emotionally charged stimuli, they are less likely to sway our judgments of other
Negative emotions might seem more intense, or more readily elicited, and harder to regulate.
Negative evaluations are more potent then positive evaluations.
If so, emotion is elicited, and if not, no emotion ensues.
Goal congruent events elicit positive emotions, and goal incongruent events produce
Then the individual appraises ongoing events in terms of the extent to which the event is
congruent or incongruent with the person's goals.
First, the individual evaluates whether the event is relevant to personal goals or not.
Then the individual appraises the event in terms of its relevant to more specific goals, or issues for
Two stages of the appraisal process:
In this account the automatic process is in terms of basic emotions.
Each of these basic emotions has the function of setting the brain into a mode adapted to deal
with a recurring situation (respectively: progress with a goal, loss, frustration by another,
Each mode is a state of readiness with a distinct phenomenological tone, but no necessary
First there is an appraisal of an event in relation to goals that is automatic and unconscious.
The core relational theme is the essential meaning for each emotion. They are
summaries of the different classes of events that elicit emotion.
These themes are the language of our emotional experience, they capture the themes
and issues that organize our emotional experience (i.e. anger -> a demeaning offense
The result of these processes is what Lazarus calls the core relational themeof the emotion.
In the secondary appraisal stage the individual considers a causal attribution for the event, how to
respond to the event, and future consequences of different courses of action.
Oatley and Johnson-Lairdpostulate appraisals with two components:
Discrete approaches: particular emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, and so on. The idea that the
emotions are discrete is usually contrasted with the idea that emotional life is best characterized on dimensions
such as positivity and arousal.
Chapter 7. Appraisal, Knowledge, and Experience