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Chapter 8

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Medieval Warfare, Erving Goffman, Weggis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
G Cupchik
Chapter
8

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PSYC18 Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood
The emergence of emotions
-first language of us all
-Emotions in the first year of life
oEmotional development is social development
oSets of primary emotions, Tomkins proposes that each emotion commes with innate
package with own neural program
oExpressions of distinct emotions other than disgust are hard to distinguish in first few days
of life
oAnalyzing babies’ facial expressions: Izard’s MAX (later AFFEX) and Oster’s Baby-FACS
oSmiles are not seen as social until at around three months (in response to events like
attention, invitations to play and other pleasurable social encounters)
oLewis, Alessandri and Sullivan (1990) have also shown that smiling occurs when infants
master skills (string pulling elicits music)
oBaby smiles also elicit more smiles, interest and affection from caregivers
oDiscrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the
context of an appropriate elicitor (pulling string no longer elicits music = frustrates baby)
Sullivan and Lewis studied three different kinds of frustration: los of the stimulation
(extinction), reduction in contingent stimulation (partial reinforcement and loss of
stimulus control (noncontingency)
Hiatt et al (1979) found that babies expressed happiness well, fear the least well
(stimuli that was supposed to elicit fear elicited other expressions as well0
-Dynamic systems
oCamras (1992) made video recordings of her daughter Justine’s facial expressions and
found that eliciting cirucmstances do not seem to be compatible with the child’s emotional
expression
oAlan Fogel and group (Camras, Carlson, Sroufe, Egeland) and Lewis et al. have proposed
that emotinos develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems. (idea that neurophysiological
programs do not come genetically specified as ready-assembled packages. Formed by
interaction among the components and by interaction of babies with other people)
oTheory of dynamic systems is related to chaos theory (counters Butterfly effect). Chaos
theory states that some systems (like weather) are self-organizing and that because the
forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might interrupt, the butterfly’s
wing flap would mean nothing
oIn a comparable way, dyanmic systems theorists of psychology say that the systems of
components that have their expressions (smiles, frowns, etc) is not made up of billard-ball-
like interactions of of parts. It is dynamic, self-orgniazing, resistant to disruption (dynamic
systems theory does not make predictions but offers point of view in which behaviour does
not occur in response to external causes but the inner organization of the system)
oFogel et al . (1992) propose that in interactions of systems with social world, further
interdependcies occur. Hypothesis has three principles
A) Emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems
B) these depend on continuously evolving sequences of action in particular
environments, rather than on internal programs
C) Categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing and intensity of
vocal, gestural and other features
According to this proposal: emotions emerge and they derive from interactions of
lower-level process that are not themselves emotions
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PSYC18 Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood
Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion
-Scarr and Salapatek (1970) exposed infants to strangers, visual cliff, jack-in-the-box, a moving toy
dog, loud noises and someone wearing a mask
oFew children under seven months showed marked expressions of fear/distress to any of
these stimuli
oAge up to two years, children showed more fearful avoidance of visual cliff and more fear of
strangers and masks
oPreschoolers frightened by imaginary themes: monsters, ghosts, frightening dreams
oEarly school years: fears of bodily injury and physical danger
oAdolescence: Social concerns
Infants’ perceptions and parents’ special expressions
-How infants perceive emotions in other people
-Habituation: based on finding that infants look at patterns that are new to them for longer than
pattersn that are familiar
-Arlene Walker-Andrews (1997): Infants tend first to recognize emotional expressions from parents’
voices
-Motherese: infants pay more attention to this special voice and show more positive emotion
during it
-Nakota and Trehub (2004): Infants more intrigued by mothers’ singing than talking
-Chong et al. (2003) facial expressions of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking mothers. 3 most
prominent:
oPuckered lips making “oooh
oMock surprise with raised eyebrows
oExaggerated smile accompained by raised brows
-By seven months, babies can match facial and vocal expressions
-Imitation: which babies show from first few hours of life has emotional effects.
oCould occur because discrete neural programs of emotions which start up when any part is
activated.
oCoul also occur because making a particular expression contributes to a particular mode
within a dynamic self-organizing system
oEither case: means that babies’ imitative experssions are important in sharing affective
states with caregivers
Attachment
-psychological aspect of the concept “mammal” (live-born and suckled by its mother)
-John Bowlby first realized the species-characteristic pattern from World War II
oLove is an emotion, but not just something in the mind or body of an individual. It is the
foundational relationship of infancy and it forms a template for intemate relationships for
the rest of life
-Konrad Lorenz (1935) described instinctive pattern: baby goslings follow anything that moves
around and makes sounds (imprinting). Critical period where it must recognize it’s mother.
-Harlow and the two mothered monkey experiment: wire mother and mother made of cloth
oMonkeys jumped to cloth mother regardless of whether it was the one who fed them
-Kraemer: Effects of baby monkeys reared with artificial mothers suffered major damage
oWhat is at issue in attachment is not just survival but building an inner model of
interactions with another individual
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