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CA (168,383)
UTSC (19,323)
Psychology (10,052)
PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood
The emergence of emotions
Emotions in the first year of life
Emotional development is social development
Emotional expressions are outward and visible signs of inner programs
The faces infants make to disgust are similar to those of other primates
Early smiles among infants are not usually social; social smiles do not usually emerge
until one or two months month 2 a result of gentle stroking and month 3 from
caregiver interaction
3 month old response is the same as the response in an adult (smiling)
Infants smiles draw attention from adults
Also found other emotions (anger, fear, sadness) among 3 month olds
Dynamic systems
Some researchers argue that infants’ negative emotions are only of undifferentiated
distress but at different levels of intensity
Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as
blends of discrete expressions
Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscles when making negative expressions
Only difference between distress-pain and anger is that anger has eyes open
Proposal that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems
Neuropsychological programs do not come genetically specified as ready-
assembled packages
Such packages do occur, but they are constructed during early life from lower-level
genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by
interaction among the components, and by interaction of babies with other people
Idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a
system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal
coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside
Componential theories of adult emotions: components occur together because they are
elicited by features of the environment that occur together
Developmental view: the components that will affect emotions do become
neurophysiologically linked together, but do not start out that way
Fogel (a) emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems; (b) these depend on
continuously evolving sequences of action in particular environments, rather than on
internal programs; (c) categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing
and intensity of vocal, gestural, and other features
Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion
There are marked changes in the kinds of events that elicit emotions with increasing
age
Few children under 7 months showed marked expressions of fear/distress for
strangers, jack-in-the-box, loud noise, mask, toy dog, etc but with increasing age up to
www.notesolution.com
2yrs, children showed more fearful avoidance of visual cliff, stranger and mask. Other
fears peaked at 1yr but fell with age
Increased negativity of emotional experience from grade 5 to 9 associated with
reduced self-esteem
From grade 10 onward, average growth of positivity was found in adolescent
emotional experience
Infants’ perceptions and parents’ special expressions
Habituation has been used to consider how infants perceive emotions in other people
infants look at patterns that are new to them for longer than patterns that are familiar
Infants do recognize emotionally significant expressions from parents and others from
the age of a few months, but the expressions that can be recognized usually involve
both visual and acoustic aspects
learned first from parents voices
Motherese: different voice used when talking to infants
Mothers singing may be more engaging
By 7mon babies can match facial and vocal expressions
Imitation, which babies show from the first few hours of life, has emotional effects for
them
internal feedback of facial actions when infants mimic adult emotional expressions
could evoke emotions in the child
By one year, skills have developed that allow infants to take part in complex
interactions
Happy, angry, sad emerge first
Attachment
Bowlby – species-characteristic pattern of attachment is central to human emotional
development
Imprinting was found to occur in goslings critical period at about 2 days during
which a biological mechanism is set to recognize characteristics of the mother, but
objects acceptable to this mechanism are not closely specified
Effects are irreversible
Attachment is not just survival, but building an inner model of interactions with
another individual
Socio-emotional building-potential of attachment is innate a species-characteristic
process
Principle emotion of attachment is anxiety
Separation distress occurs in the second half of the first year, reaches a peak at 15 and
18 months then declines. Rare at 3 years
Cooperative action and the goal corrected partnership
Bowlby – “the goal corrected partnership” which enables cooperation between two
individuals that allows them to achieve mutual goals
Construction of the child’s relationship with others
Emotions show that an interaction is going well or that adjustments need to be made
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions Emotions in the first year of life Emotional development is social development Emotional expressions are outward and visible signs of inner programs The faces infants make to disgust are similar to those of other primates Early smiles among infants are not usually social; social smiles do not usually emerge until one or two months month 2 a result of gentle stroking and month 3 from caregiver interaction 3 month old response is the same as the response in an adult (smiling) Infants smiles draw attention from adults Also found other emotions (anger, fear, sadness) among 3 month olds Dynamic systems Some researchers argue that infants negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress but at different levels of intensity Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscles when making negative expressions Only difference between distress-pain and anger is that anger has eyes open Proposal that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems Neuropsychological programs do not come genetically specified as ready- assembled packages Such packages do occur, but they are constructed during early life from lower-level genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components, and by interaction of babies with other people Idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside Componential theories of adult emotions: components occur together because they are elicited by features of the environment that occur together Developmental view: the components that will affect emotions do become neurophysiologically linked together, but do not start out that way Fogel (a) emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems; (b) these depend on continuously evolving sequences of action in particular environments, rather than on internal programs; (c) categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing and intensity of vocal, gestural, and other features Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion There are marked changes in the kinds of events that elicit emotions with increasing age Few children under 7 months showed marked expressions of feardistress for strangers, jack-in-the-box, loud noise, mask, toy dog, etc but with increasing age up to www.notesolution.com
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