Textbook Notes (381,336)
CA (168,503)
UTSC (19,326)
Psychology (10,054)
PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships
Social goals and social emotions
Freud saw life in terms of sexuality and death
Love, compassion, and gratitude are underpinnings of cooperative behaviour
Anger, aggression, and revenge have been seen as unavoidable aspects of human
character
Lorenz argued that aggression is an innate drive like hunger, and that human culture is
in peril
Three kinds of social motivation: attachment, affiliation, and assertion
Attachment: its function is primarily that of protection and care for the immature
infant. The infant and caregiver cooperate to allow the infant to thrive in an
environment that contains danger
Affiliation: accompanies attachment and is typically described as warmth (affection).
Contributes to parenting, and draws individuals together even when they are not
genetically related
Assertion: we create hierarchies in many of the things we do. It is the motivation to
rise in the social hierarchy, and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us
Attachment and its separation from affiliation
Attachment system keeps the mother close
The idea of maternal sensitivity to the infant’s needs
Affiliation and warmth are fundamentally important in human development, but they
involve different processes than of protection
The chimps affiliative system is at work while grooming
People express more emotions in relationships that are communal (caring,
relationships)
Emotions as social
People are anxious if an attachment figure is inexplicably absent
Emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events
We commit ourselves to the relationship for which the emotion sets the frame
Emotions signal our goals, and others can then be responsive to them
Attachment, affiliation and assertion to be actively combined
Sexual love does best with a strong combination of attachment and affiliation
Effective parenting needs all three
Emotions within intimate relationships
Early attachment as a template for later love
In long-term love two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do
alone. Result is the affectional bond
Proposed that adult love depends on three systems: attachment, caregiving of infants
by parents, and the sexual relating of reproduction
Maternal caregiving and affiliative warmth
In rats, mothers show three distinctive kinds of maternal behaviour toward their
infants. (a) when infant rats suckle, the mothers assume a crouching posture over
www.notesolution.com
them; (b) if infants get out of the nest, they make ultrasonic squeaks and mothers
retrieve them (retrieval is dependent on the nuclear accumbens); (c) mothers lick their
infants, particularly on and around the ano-genital region
Baby rats who were licked more and nursed more by their mothers made a difference
in DNA methylation at a gene promoter region in the hippocampus
primary maternal preoccupation – sustains the devotion they need for the baby to
flourish
Early contact may help mothers and fathers become bonded to the infants
Affiliation and sexual relating
Male provisioning hypothesis: sexual love in humans is the result of the joining of the
affiliative-warmth system to the reproductive one
Pair-bonding: movement from promiscuity to long-lasting sexual relationships
between specific males and females
Principles of sexual love
Love in marriage was most closely identified with happiness
Differentiation between sexual desire and romantic love
The people participants say they love only partially overlap with those who they say
they feel sexual desire
Only romantic or sexual love is associated with the release of oxytocin, which itself
promotes devotion and monogamy
Anger and contempt in marriage
the four horsemen of the apocalypse”
Criticism: those who were more critical had less satisfying marriages
Defensiveness
Stonewalling (resisting dealing with problems): when romantic partners are unable to
talk freely about their difficulties without being defensive, they are in trouble
Contempt for the partner: denial of the
All social emotions have an element of commitment
Fuck anger
Resolution is the readjustment of the relationship in response to anger
Friendship and gratitude
From an evolutionary perspective, friendships present something of a conundrum: they
require cooperation with non-kin
Trivers proposed that cooperative alliances like friendships have emerged in human
evolution, and are successful in our more immediate lives
Communicative gene hypothesis: although genes are inherently selfish, they survive
and continue from generation to generation only in the context of other genes
Contend that gratitude is a glue of cooperative social living amongst non-kin; it is a
moral emotion
Gratitude leads people to be more likely to reciprocate acts of generosity
Expression of gratitude acts as a reward; it reinforces affectionate, cooperative
behaviour
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9 Emotions in Social Relationships Social goals and social emotions Freud saw life in terms of sexuality and death Love, compassion, and gratitude are underpinnings of cooperative behaviour Anger, aggression, and revenge have been seen as unavoidable aspects of human character Lorenz argued that aggression is an innate drive like hunger, and that human culture is in peril Three kinds of social motivation: attachment, affiliation, and assertion Attachment: its function is primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant. The infant and caregiver cooperate to allow the infant to thrive in an environment that contains danger Affiliation: accompanies attachment and is typically described as warmth (affection). Contributes to parenting, and draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related Assertion: we create hierarchies in many of the things we do. It is the motivation to rise in the social hierarchy, and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us Attachment and its separation from affiliation Attachment system keeps the mother close The idea of maternal sensitivity to the infants needs Affiliation and warmth are fundamentally important in human development, but they involve different processes than of protection The chimps affiliative system is at work while grooming People express more emotions in relationships that are communal (caring, relationships) Emotions as social People are anxious if an attachment figure is inexplicably absent Emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events We commit ourselves to the relationship for which the emotion sets the frame Emotions signal our goals, and others can then be responsive to them Attachment, affiliation and assertion to be actively combined Sexual love does best with a strong combination of attachment and affiliation Effective parenting needs all three Emotions within intimate relationships Early attachment as a template for later love In long-term love two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone. Result is the affectional bond Proposed that adult love depends on three systems: attachment, caregiving of infants by parents, and the sexual relating of reproduction Maternal caregiving and affiliative warmth In rats, mothers show three distinctive kinds of maternal behaviour toward their infants. (a) when infant rats suckle, the mothers assume a crouching posture over www.notesolution.com
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