Textbook Notes (378,747)
CA (167,254)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYC18H3 (280)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 7 ± Appraisal, Knowledge and Experience
x 1961 ± patient with epilepsy had an operation to separate the left side of the cortex to the right to stop the spread of
epileptic disturbances called split brain operation.
o In the corpus callosum, a large bundle of nerve fibers connecting the left and right sides of the cortex, which is
then severed.
o 'HVSLWHWKHOHIWDQGULJKWFRUWLFHVEHLQJQRORQJHULQFRPPXQLFDWLRQWKHSDWLHQW¶V,4SHUVRQDOLW\ODQJXDJHDQG
ability to engage in meaningful interactions are not diminished.
o However, each side remains ignorant of what the other has seen.
o Right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, where left is more ready to interpret
experience in terms of language **
x Case Study interview
o Hemisphere processed emotional content of the file about fire safety, triggering anxiety and agitation
o Takes part in the interview using the left hemisphere (language), however she does not consciously know why
VKHIHHOVDVVKHGRHV«IHDUIXOVWLPXOXVSURFHVVed only in the right cortex.
x Primary appraisal ± unconscious, automatic, something like a reflex
x Secondary appraisal ± potentially conscious, thought-like, gives rise to specific emotions, somewhat controlled.
Appraisal and emotion
x Events to prompt emotions, they must be evaluated, or appraisedLQUHODWLRQWRWKHLQGLYLGXDVJRDOV
Historical background and definitions
x Chrysippus, distinguished between what he called first movements of emotions, which are automatic, and second
movements which are mental, and involve judgment and decision
o Such an idea maps exactly to primary and secondary appraisals, providing framework for the rest of the
chapter.
x Lazarus and stress
o looked at stress, a condition in which personal challenges exceed the inGLYLGXDVFDSDFLWLHVDQGUHVRXUFHV
o Produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the ANS
o Short-WHUP«$QDGDSWLYHSURFHVVKHOSLQJSHRSOHUHVSRQGWRWKUHDWVGDQJHUVDQGOLNHO\SXQLVKPHQWVZLWK
quick, energetic efficiency.
o Long-WHUP«chronic stress produced by enduring sources of tension such as pressures at work, turbulent
periods during marriages, financial problems, etc. Can lead to CVD, heard disease, cancer, cell death in the
hippocampus and memory loss. Being target of prejudice or discrimination can lead to health problems as well.
x /D]DUXV¶DSSUDLVDODSSURDFKWRHPRWLRQ
o ³7KLVDSSURDFKWRHPRWLRQFRQWDLQVWZREDVLFWKHPHV)LUVWHPRWLRQLVDresponse to evaluative judgments or
meaning; second, these judgments are about ongoing relationships with the environment, how one is doing in
the agenda of living and whether the encounter of the environment is one of harm or benefit.
o Appraisals involve judgments of how good or bad an event is.
o Appraisals concern the individuaVJRDOVDQGDVSLUDWLRQV
o Relate the outer world and the inner self
x Stein, Trabasso, and Liwag
o 1) An event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal.
o 2) Beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur
o 3) Plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of the
plans are considered.
o Æ &DSWXUHVVXFKTXHVWLRQV³:KDWKDSSHQHG":KDWFDQ,GRDERXWLW"$QGZKDWPLJKWWKHQKDSSHQQH[W"´
x Processes leading to these specific emotions are thoughts or thought-like processes, called secondary appraisals.
Automatic appraisals of good and bad
x Zajonc (1980) ± system that makes these appraisals probably involves the amygdala
o First appraisal system appears to give rise to our core feelings of positivity or negativity.
o Other systems, secondary, provide more deliberate, conscious and complex assessments in terms of such
matters as what caused the event and hat to do about it.
x 0XUSK\DQG=DMRQVVWXG\Rn automatic evaluations
o Suboptimally presented faces, smiling faces led participants to express greater liking for Chinese ideographs
that followed them
o Angry faces to prompt less liking for the ideographs that followed them, even though participants could not tell
the experimenter what faces they have seen
o No such priming effects emerged with the optimally presented faces
o *** When we are consciously aware of emotionally charged stimuli, they are less likely to sway our judgments of
other stimuli.
o *** In RWKHUZRUGVZKHQSULPHGVXEFRQVFLRXVO\LWDIIHFWVRQHVMXGJPHQWRIVWLPXOXVEXWZKHQSULPHG
FRQVFLRXVO\LWGRHVQ¶W
x Ohman and Soares
o Presented photos of snake to people with snake phobias below their awareness
o Found these photos generated a galvanic skin response and negative emotion.
Is the bad stronger than the good? (yes?!)
x Our negative evaluations appear to be more potent than our positive
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Description
Chapter 7 Appraisal, Knowledge and Experience N 1961 patient with epilepsy had an operation to separate the left side of the cortex to the right to stop the spread of epileptic disturbances called split brain operation. o In the corpus callosum, a large bundle of nerve fibers connecting the left and right sides of the cortex, which is then severed. o 085L909K0O019,37LJK9.479L.08-0L3J34O43J07L3.422:3L.,9L439K05,9L0398,507843,OL9O,3J:,J0,3 ability to engage in meaningful interactions are not diminished. o However, each side remains ignorant of what the other has seen. o Right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, where left is more ready to interpret experience in terms of language ** N Case Study interview o Hemisphere processed emotional content of the file about fire safety, triggering anxiety and agitation o Takes part in the interview using the left hemisphere (language), however she does not consciously know why 8K0100O8,88K040810,71:O89L2:O:8574.088ed only in the right cortex. N Primary appraisal unconscious, automatic, something like a reflex N Secondary appraisal potentially conscious, thought-like, gives rise to specific emotions, somewhat controlled. Appraisal and emotion N Events to prompt emotions, they must be evaluated, or appraisedL370O,9L43949K0L3L;L:,O8J4,O8 Historical background and definitions N Chrysippus, distinguished between what he called first movements of emotions, which are automatic, and second movements which are mental, and involve judgment and decision o Such an idea maps exactly to primary and secondary appraisals, providing framework for the rest of the chapter. N Lazarus and stress o looked at stress, condition in which personal challenges exceed the inL;L:,O8.,5,.L9L08,37084:7.08 o Produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the ANS o Short-90723,,59L;0574.088K0O5L3J5045O0708543949K70,98,3J078,3OLN0O5:3L8K20398ZL9K quick, energetic efficiency. o Long-9072chronic stress produced by enduring sources of tension such as pressures at work, turbulent periods during marriages, financial problems, etc. Can lead to CVD, heard disease, cancer, cell death in the hippocampus and memory loss. Being target of prejudice or discrimination can lead to health problems as well. N ,],7:8,557,L8,O,5574,.K940249L43 o %KL8,5574,.K940249L43.439,L389Z4-,8L.9K0208L7890249L43L8,response to evaluative judgments meaning; second, these judgments are about ongoing relationships with the environment, how one is doing in the agenda of living and whether the encounter of the environment is one of harm or benefit. o Appraisals involve judgments of how good or bad an event is. o Appraisals concern the individuaO8J4,O8,3,85L7,9L438 o Relate the outer world and the inner self N Stein, Trabasso, and Liwag o 1) An event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal. o 2) Beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur o 3) Plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of the plans are considered. o ,59:7088:.K6:089L438:K,9K,55030:K,9.,3,4,-4:9L93ZK,92LJK99K03K,550330[9 N Processes leading to these specific emotions are thoughts or thought-like processes, called secondary appraisals. Automatic appraisals of good and bad N Zajonc (1980) system that makes these appraisals probably involves the amygdala o First appraisal system appears to give rise to our core feelings of positivity or negativity. o Other systems, secondary, provide more deliberate, conscious and complex assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and hat to do about it. N :75K,3=,M43.889:4n automatic evaluations o Suboptimally presented faces, smiling faces led participants to express greater liking for Chinese ideographs that followed them o Angry faces to prompt less liking for the ideographs that followed them, even though participants could not tell the experimenter what faces they have seen o No such priming effects emerged with the optimally presented faces o *** When we are consciously aware of emotionally charged stimuli, they are less likely to sway our judgments of other stimuli. o *** In 49K07Z478ZK0357L208:-.438.L4:8OL9,110.984308M:J20394189L2:O:8-:9ZK0357L20 .438.L4:8OL940839 N Ohman and Soares o Presented photos of snake to people with snake phobias below their awareness o Found these photos generated a galvanic skin response and negative emotion. Is the bad stronger than the good? (yes?!) N Our negative evaluations appear to be more potent than our positive www.notesolution.com
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