Textbook Notes (380,896)
CA (168,264)
UTSC (19,296)
Psychology (10,044)
PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 8 ± Development of Emotions in Childhood
The emergence of emotions
x Vocal sounds during evolution as momentous, signaling the beginnings of a new kind of adaptation Æ social cooperation.
Emotions in the first year of life
x End of first year, one is a social being with sociality organized around emotions
x Idea of discrete emotions (Tomkins, 1962) proposes that each emotion comes as an innate package with its own neural
programs.
x Emotional expressions, then, are outward, and visible signs of inner programs.
x Although crying also occurs in very young infants, expressions of distinct emotions other than disgust are hard to
distinguish in the first few days of life.
x By the time they are two months old, adults are generally good at seeing expressions of happiness in their faces.
x 7ZRVFKHPHVIRUDQDO\]LQJEDELHV¶IDFLDOH[SUHVVLRQV
o ,]DUGV¶0$;Æ later modification AFFEX
o 2VWHUV%DE\-)$&6DQDGDSWDWLRQIRULQIDQWVRI(NPDQ)UHLVHQVFRGLQJVFKHPHIRUDGXOWH[SUHVVLRQ
x ==
x Similar smiles are made during sleep
x Social smiles do not emerge until after the first month or two. Also begin to occur with gentle stroking
x By the third month, they occur frequently in interaction with a caregiver, a situation that we can infer is associated with
happiness.
x Also happens when infants master skills, music, etc.
x Even before infants can direct expressions at specific people, their smiles function to draw adults into affectionate
interactions.
x Discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the context of an appropriate elicitor.
x In babies who are less than a year old, happy smiling occurs in response to playful games, and anger in response to
frustration *
x ==
x 6XOOLYDQ$QG/HZLV¶WKUHHNLQGVRIIUXVWUDWLRQ
o 1) loss of the stimulation (extinction)
o 2) reduction in contingent stimulation (partial reinforcement)
o 3) loss of stimulus control (noncontingency)
x Discrete emotions exist two criteria were to be met:
o 1) predicted expression should occur more often than any non-predicted expression in response to a specific
elicitor, for instance an expression of fear must occur more often than surprise in response to a visual cliff and
to approach of the stranger.
o 2) the predicted expressions must be displayed more often in its appropriate eliciting circumstances than in non-
predicted eliciting circumstances, for instance the fear expression must occur more in response to the visual cliff
and the approach of a stranger than in response to the vanishing object or to the substitution of a toy.
Dynamic systems
x Camras (1992): most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete
expressions.
o When making negative expressions, infants often contract their orbicularis oculi muscles and close their eyes
o AFFEX ± only difference between codings of expressions of distress-pain and anger is that in anger, the eyes
are open.
High intensity ± AFFEX coding as distress-pain
Med-Low intensity ± AFFEX coding as anger
Low-intensity ± AFFEX coding as sadness
x Self-organizing systems ± neurophysiological programs do not genetically specified as ready-assembled packages.
o Such packages do occur but they are constructed during early life from lower-genetically derived components,
which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components and by interaction of babies with
other people.
o Certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the
forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside.
o )XWXUHEHKDYLRULVQRWIXOO\SUHGLFWDEOHIURPNQRZLQJWKHV\VWHPVVWDUWLQJSRLQW
o In a comparable way, the dynamic systems theorists of psychology say, the systems of components have their
expressions as smiles, frowns, and distinctive emotional interactions, is not made up of billiard-ball-like
interactions but rather it is dynamic, self-organizing and resistant to disruption.
o Attractor state ± an organization to which a system will gravitate however it starts; predictions are a set of
metaphors.
([DFKHHUIXOSHUVRQVDWWUDFWRUVWDWHVZLOOEHHPRWLRQVRIKDSSLQHVVDperson who is suspicious of
the world will head toward an attractor state of fear and anger.
x Componential theories of adult emotions ± components occur together because they are elicited by features of the
environment that occur together
x Developmental view ± components will affect emotions do become neurophysiologically linked together, but they did not
start that way.
x ==
x Fogel et al. (1992) propose that in interactions of such systems with the social world, further interdependencies occur.
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Description
Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions N Vocal sounds during evolution as momentous, signaling the beginnings of a new kind of adaptation social cooperation. Emotions in the first year of life N End of first year, one is a social being with sociality organized around emotions N Idea of discrete emotions (Tomkins, 1962) proposes that each emotion comes as an innate package with its own neural programs. N Emotional expressions, then, are outward, and visible signs of inner programs. N Although crying also occurs in very young infants, expressions of distinct emotions other than disgust are hard to distinguish in the first few days of life N By the time they are two months old, adults are generally good at seeing expressions of happiness in their faces. N %Z48.K0208147,3,O]L3J-,-L081,.L,O0[57088L438 o ,],78; later modification AFFEX o 89078,--$,3,,59,9L43147L31,39841N2,3 70L8038.4L3J8.K020147,:O90[57088L43 N == N Similar smiles are made during sleep N Social smiles do not emerge until after the first month or two. Also begin to occur with gentle stroking N By the third month, they occur frequently in interaction with a caregiver, a situation that we can infer is associated with happiness. N Also happens when infants master skills, music, etc. N Even before infants can direct expressions at specific people, their smiles function to draw adults into affectionate interactions. N Discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the context of an appropriate elicitor. N In babies who are less than a year old, happy smiling occurs in response to playful games, and anger in response to frustration * N == N $:OOL;,330ZL89K700NL384117:897,9L43 o 1) loss of the stimulation (extinction) o 2) reduction in contingent stimulation (partial reinforcement) o 3) loss of stimulus control (noncontingency) N Discrete emotions exist two criteria were to be met: o 1) predicted expression should occur more often than any non-predicted expression in response to a specific elicitor, for instance an expression of fear must occur more often than surprise in response to a visual cliff and to approach of the stranger. o 2) the predicted expressions must be displayed more often in its appropriate eliciting circumstances than in non- predicted eliciting circumstances, for instance the fear expression must occur more in response to the visual cliff and the approach of a stranger than in response to the vanishing object or to the substitution of a toy. Dynamic systems N Camras (1992): most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions. o When making negative expressions, infants often contract their orbicularis oculi muscles and close their eyes o AFFEX only difference between codings of expressions of distress-pain and anger is that in anger, the eyes are open. High intensity AFFEX coding as distress-pain Med-Low intensity AFFEX coding as anger Low-intensity AFFEX coding as sadness N Self-organizing systems neurophysiological programs do not genetically specified as ready-assembled packages. o Such packages do occur but they are constructed during early life from lower-genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components and by interaction of babies with other people. o Certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside. o :9:70-0K,;L47L83491:OO570L.9,-O01742N34ZL3J9K088902889,79L3J54L39 o In a comparable way, the dynamic systems theorists of psychology say, the systems of components have their expressions as smiles, frowns, and distinctive emotional interactions, is not made up of billiard-ball-like interactions but rather it is dynamic, self-organizing and resistant to disruption. o Attractor state an organization to which a system will gravitate however it starts; predictions are a set of metaphors. [,.K0071:O5078438,997,.94789,908ZLOO-00249L43841K,55L3088,person who is suspicious of the world will head toward an attractor state of fear and anger. N Componential theories of adult emotions components occur together because they are elicited by features of the environment that occur together N Developmental view components will affect emotions do become neurophysiologically linked together, but they did not start that way. N == N Fogel et al. (1992) propose that in interactions of such systems with the social world, further interdependencies occur. www.notesolution.com
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