Chapter 9 ± Emotions in Social Relationships
Social goals and social emotions
x Freud ± sexuality and death, creative and destructive
x Child dev. ± love and control
x Anthro. ± intimacy and coordination
x Lorenz argued that aggression is an innate drive like hunger, and that human culture is in peril: aggression threatens to
run out of control because technology and bureaucracy hold back humans from reconciliation and peace-making
Three kinds of social motivation: attachment, affiliation/affection and assertion
x Attachment ± function is primarily that of protection and care for an immature infant
x Affection/affiliation ± often described as warmth; contributes to parenting, more generally draws individuals together even
when they are not genetically elated
x Assertion ± motivation to rise in the social hierarchy, to resist challenges from those who diminish us; motivation of
competition and of conflict.
x Think of it as managing social goals; 3D representation **
o Typical positive emotions for attachment: trust, comfort and reassurance; loss: distress, anxiety.
o Typical positive emotions for affiliation: affection, warmth, liking; loss: sadness and grieving.
o Main emotion of assertion is anger: to win or maintain status, loss of status: accompanied by shame or
embarrassment and other emotions of deterrence.
Attachment and its separation from affiliation
x Along with the significance of protection that attachment brings, there is affiliation as well, including sensitivity.
x Infants develop their sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive.
end of the year
x Approach and separation
o Joy activates the left side of the cortex
o Distress activates the right side of the cortex. (separate system, not reduction of left side)
x &RPPXQDOUHODWLQJ,QRWKHUZRUGVFDULQJ(J,¶OOGR\RXDIDYRUHYHQLI\RXGRQ¶WGRDQ\WKLQJIRUPHVS. reciprocal,
expecting an exchange which has more a commercial quality.
Emotions as social
x Emotions are evaluations, or appraisals, of events that affect different kinds of social goals.
x They create social relationships
o Smile is not just a smile. It is an invitation to a cooperative relationship.
o An angry expression is a declaration of conflict.
x Commitments ± We must commit ourselves, for a time at least, to the relationship for which emotion sets the frame.
x Effective parenting needs three social motivation: attachment WRHQVXUHDFKLOG¶VZRUOGLVVDIHaffiliation to surround the
child with affection, and assertion to ensure effective control and monitoring.
Emotions within intimate relationships
Early attachment as a template for later love
x Affectional bond ± long-term cooperation and accomplishment between two individuals, in which they could not do
x Shaver et al. (1988) propose that adult love depends on three systems: attachment, caregiving of infants by parents, and
the sexual relating of reproduction
Maternal caregiving and affiliative warmth
x In rats, mothers:
o Change posture when infants suckle
o Squeak when babies get out of nest
o Lick their infants, which supposedly improves their health; DNA methylation at a gene promoter in the
x Similar to humans:
o Licking can be considered similar to cuddling, kissing , showing affection
x Primary maternal preoccupation ± sustains the devotion they need for the baby to flourish.
o Description of process of the mother becoming bonded to her baby by bodily contact during the first days after
x Is early physical contact really a must?
o Those who are unable to have close contact still become perfectly good and loving parents and their babies
subsequently thrive just as well.