The notion that humans are a mixture of good and evil, still accounts for human nature.
This chapter considers the emotions that promote cooperation and aggression.
Positive emotions: trust, comfort, and reassurance.
Negative emotions: anxiety and distress.
Attachmentfunctions primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant.
Core of kindness, of friendship, and of romantic love.
Positive emotions: affection, warmth, and liking.
Negative emotions: sadness and grieving.
Affiliation or affection, often described as warmth and contributes to parenting and draws individuals
together even when they are not genetically related.
It is the motivation of competition, and of conflict.
Positive emotion: anger, to win or maintain status.
Negative emotion: shame or embarrassment.
Assertion is the motivation to rise in social hierarchy, and to resist challenges from those who would
Three kinds of social motivation:
Other studies have found a dissociation between maternal sensitivity and attachment security.
However, this is not so simple. There's the factor of affiliation, warmth, and affection.
Mothers in Uganda may be very responsive to their infant's distress, but hugging and kissing is rare; the
opposite occurs with mothers in America.
People express more emotions in communal relating (caring) as opposed to in terms of social
MacDonald and Goldberghypothesized that the separate systems of attachment and affiliative warmth can
be differently prioritized in different cultures.
In terms of attachment, maternal sensitivity is importantly associated with infant security (they develop their
sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive).
First, emotions are evaluations, or appraisals, of events that affect different kinds of social goals.
Second, emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events.
Emotions are commitments, in the way that emotions sets out goals, and others can then be
Third, emotions create social relationships.
Emotions are social in several different ways.
For example, sexual love needs a strong combo of attachment and affiliation; while parenting needs a
combination of all three.
The three kinds of social motivation does not just coexist, they must be actively combined.
Emotions within intimate relationships.
Affectional bond: long-term love two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone.
Adult romantic love, Bowlby believes, is an elaboration upon universal, evolved, behavioural patterns of earlier life.
Sucking is a characteristic of all mammals; very old.
When infant rats suckle, the mothers assume a crouching posture over them.
Retrieval is also a typical species-characteristic pattern; very old.
If infants get out of the nest, they make ultrasonic squeaks and mothers retrieve them.
Licking is a more variable and elaborate pattern in rats, more than suckling and retrieving.
It requires mothers to be attracted to their infants, and it can be dissociated with suckling and
Being licked in infancy affect gene expression, which is a calming effect in adulthood.
There is intergenerational transmission, dependent on whether mothers experienced
bodily contact when she was an infant.
This is associated with our hugging, cuddling, kissing, stroking.
Mothers lick their infants, particularly on and around the ano-genital region.
In rats, mothers show 3 distinctive kinds of maternal behaviour toward their infants:
Alison Fleming studies the area of maternal caregiving in both laboratory animals and humans.
Early contact may help mothers and fathers become bonded to infants.
Primary maternal preoccupationis what sustains the devotion parents need for the baby to flourish.
Chapter 9. Emotions in Social Relationships