Although emotions have universal aspects, there are individual differences in emotion.
Physical aggression is greatest between 24 to 42 months and declines steadily thereafter.
Children's ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions.
Mobility has an important effect; when infants begin to move, their need for an intense signaling system lessens.
In children, this is initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child.
One view is that regulation starts with the modulation of the expression of emotion.
Refers to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping process that lessen or
augment the intensity of experience.
Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal, evaluation, suppression of urges,
as well as the selection and control of very kinds of expression and action.
Children who were able to regulate their emotions were those who had experienced warm parental
Children whose socialization were less successful achieved a self-regulated compliance with parents.
It is essential to socialization.
In other words, successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression.
Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and are often accomplished by concentrating on what
Suppression is also less healthy.
Suppression of emotion reduced rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication.
Although responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system decreases with age, experiential changes in
emotion do not decline as people get older (they just increase their skills of emotion regulation).
Dysregulationis when individuals cannot manage their emotions or accommodate to the current social
Emotion regulation: individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions.
First months -achieve stability in functioning.
Within first year -inhibit certain expressions and soothe the self.
End of first year -attachment to a close, emotionally available caregiver becomes central.
Next is the development of the self system and of self-regulation.
Stages of emotion regulation; failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages.
Show positive and negative emotions, as well as neutrality.
Mothers respond to wider range of emotions.
Securely -distressed when caregiver leave, when they return, infant seeks them and can be
Negative emotions such as anger.
Mothers are most responsive to negative affect and least responsive to positive affect.
Ambivalently -infants want to be near caregivers upon their return, but will not be comforted.
Show fewer emotions of all kinds.
Thought to have experienced repeated rejections.
Mothers least responsive to negative emotions, so infants have learned to not express them
Avoidantly -infants make no effort to interact when their caregivers return.
Found most in abused children, then in low-income families with mothers suffering from
Disoriented/disorganized -infants respond with contradictory behaviours and disorientation.
Using this, Ainsworth identified three distinct attachment styles.
Mary Ainsworth researched the Strange Situation -observations of infants' emotional reactions to brief
separations from, and reunions with their caregivers.
It is a mental model, or set of beliefs, of what to expect in an intimate relationship.
These working models form the basis of a persisting emotional bias.
Early emotional interactions with caregivers lead children to build an internal working model of relationships.
Autonomous -talk about childhood with objectivity, coherence, and balance.
Preoccupied -incoherent accounts and seem overwhelmed by traumatic childhood.
The Adult Attachment Interview examines how people think about their early attachment relationships.
Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality