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PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Although emotions have universal aspects, there are individual differences in emotion.
Physical aggression is greatest between 24 to 42 months and declines steadily thereafter.
Children's ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions.
Mobility has an important effect; when infants begin to move, their need for an intense signaling system lessens.
{
In children, this is initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child.
One view is that regulation starts with the modulation of the expression of emotion.
{
Refers to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping process that lessen or
augment the intensity of experience.
{
Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal, evaluation, suppression of urges,
as well as the selection and control of very kinds of expression and action.
|
|
Children whose socialization were less successful achieved a self-regulated compliance with parents.
{
It is essential to socialization.
|
In other words, successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression.
|
Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and are often accomplished by concentrating on what
one is doing.
|
Suppression is also less healthy.
{
Suppression of emotion reduced rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication.
{
Although responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system decreases with age, experiential changes in
emotion do not decline as people get older (they just increase their skills of emotion regulation).
{
Dysregulationis when individuals cannot manage their emotions or accommodate to the current social
situation.
Emotion regulation: individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions.
{
First months -achieve stability in functioning.
{
Within first year -inhibit certain expressions and soothe the self.
{
End of first year -attachment to a close, emotionally available caregiver becomes central.
Next is the development of the self system and of self-regulation.
{
Stages of emotion regulation; failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages.
Attachment.
Show positive and negative emotions, as well as neutrality.
Mothers respond to wider range of emotions.
|
Negative emotions such as anger.
Mothers are most responsive to negative affect and least responsive to positive affect.
|
Show fewer emotions of all kinds.
Thought to have experienced repeated rejections.
Mothers least responsive to negative emotions, so infants have learned to not express them
even if felt.
|
Avoidantly -infants make no effort to interact when their caregivers return.
Found most in abused children, then in low-income families with mothers suffering from
depression.
|
Disoriented/disorganized -infants respond with contradictory behaviours and disorientation.
{
Using this, Ainsworth identified three distinct attachment styles.
Mary Ainsworth researched the Strange Situation -observations of infants' emotional reactions to brief
separations from, and reunions with their caregivers.
{
It is a mental model, or set of beliefs, of what to expect in an intimate relationship.
These working models form the basis of a persisting emotional bias.
{
Early emotional interactions with caregivers lead children to build an internal working model of relationships.
Autonomous -talk about childhood with objectivity, coherence, and balance.
{
{
Preoccupied -incoherent accounts and seem overwhelmed by traumatic childhood.
The Adult Attachment Interview examines how people think about their early attachment relationships.
Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality
Sunday, April 17, 2011
11:07 PM
PSYC18 Page 1
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Description
Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality Sunday, April 17, 2011 11:07 PM Although emotions have universal aspects, there are individual differences in emotion. Physical aggression is greatest between 24 to 42 months and declines steadily thereafter. Childrens ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions. Mobility has an important effect; when infants begin to move, their need for an intense signaling system lessens. One view is that regulation starts with the modulation of the expression of emotion. { In children, this is initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child. Emotion regulation: individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions. { Refers to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping process that lessen or augment the intensity of experience. { Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal, evaluation, suppression of urges, as well as the selection and control of very kinds of expression and action. { It is essential to socialization. Children who were able to regulate their emotions were those who had experienced warm parental control. Children whose socialization were less successful achieved a self-regulated compliance with parents. { Suppression of emotion reduced rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication. In other words, successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression. Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and are often accomplished by concentrating on what one is doing. Suppression is also less healthy. { Although responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system decreases with age, experiential changes in emotion do not decline as people get older (they just increase their skills of emotion regulation). { Dysregulation is when individuals cannot manage their emotions or accommodate to the current social situation. Stages of emotion regulation; failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages. { First months - achieve stability in functioning.
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