Concerned with extremes of emotions: intense and long-lasting states of anxiety, of depression, or of anger.
Disorders does not equal extremes of emotions -diff between sadness and depression.
Disorders of emotional life in childhood and adolescence are states in which young people are no longer able to
successfully cope, or in which they are getting into serious trouble.
The case of Peter, who is very angry but also describes feelings of sadness and loneliness.
Diagnosesare descriptions of patterns of behaviour.
Someone who fulfills defined criteria for a defined period is usually, though not always, impaired in
Psychopathologyis the study of abnormal functioning.
The main system is that of psychiatric diagnosis, usually by means of an interview.
They are based on a medical model and focus on individuals rather than their contexts.
There is often a continuum of disorders.
Then clusters of behaviours are identified.
The method of assessment typically involves checklists of symptoms or behaviour patterns;
The main scheme for diagnosis of psychiatric problems in adults and children is the DSM-IV-TR; another is
In middle childhood two types of emotional disorders: externalizing (anger) and internalizing (depression).
In adolescence, other types occur such as drug abuse and eating disorders on top of what was before.
Conduct disorder: externalizing disorder of childhood and adolescence in which others' rights, or social norms, are
often violated. It usually includes aggression that causes harm to others, damage to property, deceitfulness, and
Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.
Conduct disorder include antisocial behaviour on top of the symptoms described for oppositional
The symptoms for these disorders are similar, they are based around a frequent presence of anger and
Two principle emotion-based externalizing disorders of childhood are:
Several hypotheses about the relationship between emotion and disorder. These do not necessarily exclude each
Depressed people experience more sadness than other emotions, or experience sadness more often
Most common view of disorders of emotion in childhood that one emotion becomes prominent.
A disorder would be a balance among emotions which, instead of being responsive to what happened in the
world, is biased towards pre-established patterns of certain kinds.
Deppresogenic attribution style is when depressed children are more likely to make attributions for
negative events that are stable (it will always be this way), internal (it is my fault), and global (all
situations will be like this).
Angry children and sad children have different kinds of appraisal styles.
In externalizing disorders, this predominance of goals seem to be exaggerated.
In terms of temperament, goys are more likely than girls to think that aggression enhances self-esteem.
Predominance of one emotion system.
The elicitation of certain emotions seem unusual.
Children with disorder react to events with deviant emotional responses: laughing when someone is
Inappropriate emotional responses.
Both inexpressive and highly expressive children had more externalizing problems.
Emotion dysregulation underlies both bullying and being victimized by bullies among children who
have been physically or sexually abused.
Emotions are not properly regulated; they are inappropriate to social context.
Children with externalizing disorders, but not internalizing disorders, are impulsive, and low in
Associated to the lack of effortful control.
Chapter 12. Emotions and Mental Health in Childhood