Textbook Notes (378,520)
CA (167,148)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYC18H3 (280)
Chapter 7

chapter 7 notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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CHAPTER 7: appraisal, knowledge, and experience
-Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the
autonomic nervous system.
-It is an adaptive process, helping people respond to threats, dangers, and punishments
with quick energetic efficiency.
-Lazarus said that there are different types of stress. The stress associated with humiliation
is different from stress associated with associated with losing a job or a spouse.
-Each different type of stress promotes a particular type of emotion by means of a specific
appraisal process.
-Lazarus proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is.
Secondly, appraisals concern the individuals goals and aspirations and how he or she is
interacting with the environment. Thus emotions refer to both events in the world and to
individuals concerns; they relate the outer world to the inner self
-According to stein, Trabasso, and Liwag appraisals that give rise to emotions also involve
beliefs, inferences, and plans. 1) an event, usually unexpected is perceived that changes
the status of a valued goal. 2) beliefs are often challenged, this can cause bodily changes
and expressions to occur. 3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate
or modify the goal and the likely results of the plans are considered.
Automatic appraisals of good and bad
-Robert Zanjonc has proposed that we process stimuli through different appraisal systems.
One system provides an immediate unconscious evaluation of whether the stimulus
is good or bad.
-This system gives rise to primary appraisals, automatic emotional reactions to events
and objects in the environment which promote rapid approach or avoidance responses.
-The first appraisal system gives rise to our core feelings of positivity or negativity.
-Experiment: participants were shown photos of people with angry or happy faces for a
very short time so they wouldnt know whether they saw a happy face or a angry face
(suboptimal condition). After that they were shown Chinese idiographs and asked to rate
them. Those that were sub-optimally presented happy faces had a greater liking for the
Chinese idiographs. No such effects were present for the optimally (in awareness)
presented faces
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-When we are consciously aware of emotionally charged stimuli, they are less likely to
affect our judgements of other stimuli
Is the bad stronger than the good?
-Our negative evaluations appear to be stronger than the good. It would make more
evolutionary sense for the individual to be more responsive to pain than pleasure.
-Numerous studies have shown that negative stimuli such as startling, frightening sounds
or disgusting smells, trigger more rapid, stringer physiological responses than positive
stimuli.
-Contamination – brief contact of food with a cockroach makes the food disgusting.
Whereas even if you dip cockroaches in your favourite food it would not make the food
tasty.
Appraisal theories and distinct emotions
-Modern research on appraisal has tended to be in 2 families: 1) discrete approaches: that
emphasizes that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions, and dimensional
approaches, which focus on many components of appraisals that relate to different
emotions.
Discrete approaches to appraisal
-Richard Lazarus proposed that there are 2 stages to the appraisal process. First
the individual appraises the event is relevant to personal goals or not. If so, an
emotion is elicited if not no emotion is elicited.
-Then the individual appraises ongoing events in terms of the extent to which the
event is congruent or incongruent with the persons goal.
-Goal congruent events elicit positive emotions and goal incongruent events produce
negative emotions.
-Finally the individual appraises the event in terms of its relevance to more specific goals,
or issues for the ego.
-Oatley postulates: first, there is an appraisal of an event in relation to goals that is
automatic and unconscious. It corresponds to the automatic and nonverbal process.
The automatic process is in terms of basic emotions (happy, sad, fear, anger,
disgust).
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Description
CHAPTER 7: appraisal, knowledge, and experience - Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. - It is an adaptive process, helping people respond to threats, dangers, and punishments with quick energetic efficiency. - Lazarus said that there are different types of stress. The stress associated with humiliation is different from stress associated with associated with losing a job or a spouse. - Each different type of stress promotes a particular type of emotion by means of a specific appraisal process. - Lazarus proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is. Secondly, appraisals concern the individuals goals and aspirations and how he or she is interacting with the environment. Thus emotions refer to both events in the world and to individuals concerns; they relate the outer world to the inner self - According to stein, Trabasso, and Liwag appraisals that give rise to emotions also involve beliefs, inferences, and plans. 1) an event, usually unexpected is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal. 2) beliefs are often challenged, this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur. 3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal and the likely results of the plans are considered. Automatic appraisals of good and bad - Robert Zanjonc has proposed that we process stimuli through different appraisal systems. One system provides an immediate unconscious evaluation of whether the stimulus is good or bad. - This system gives rise to primary appraisals , automatic emotional reactions to events and objects in the environment which promote rapid approach or avoidance responses. - The first appraisal system gives rise to our core feelings of positivity or negativity. - Experiment: participants were shown photos of people with angry or happy faces for a very short time so they wouldnt know whether they saw a happy face or a angry face (suboptimal condition). After that they were shown Chinese idiographs and asked to rate them. Those that were sub-optimally presented happy faces had a greater liking for the Chinese idiographs. No such effects were present for the optimally (in awareness) presented faces www.notesolution.com
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