CHAPTER 7: appraisal, knowledge, and experience
-Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the
autonomic nervous system.
-It is an adaptive process, helping people respond to threats, dangers, and punishments
with quick energetic efficiency.
-Lazarus said that there are different types of stress. The stress associated with humiliation
is different from stress associated with associated with losing a job or a spouse.
-Each different type of stress promotes a particular type of emotion by means of a specific
-Lazarus proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is.
Secondly, appraisals concern the individuals goals and aspirations and how he or she is
interacting with the environment. Thus emotions refer to both events in the world and to
individual’s concerns; they relate the outer world to the inner self
-According to stein, Trabasso, and Liwag appraisals that give rise to emotions also involve
beliefs, inferences, and plans. 1) an event, usually unexpected is perceived that changes
the status of a valued goal. 2) beliefs are often challenged, this can cause bodily changes
and expressions to occur. 3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate
or modify the goal and the likely results of the plans are considered.
Automatic appraisals of good and bad
-Robert Zanjonc has proposed that we process stimuli through different appraisal systems.
One system provides an immediate unconscious evaluation of whether the stimulus
is good or bad.
-This system gives rise to primary appraisals, automatic emotional reactions to events
and objects in the environment which promote rapid approach or avoidance responses.
-The first appraisal system gives rise to our core feelings of positivity or negativity.
-Experiment: participants were shown photos of people with angry or happy faces for a
very short time so they wouldn’t know whether they saw a happy face or a angry face
(suboptimal condition). After that they were shown Chinese idiographs and asked to rate
them. Those that were sub-optimally presented happy faces had a greater liking for the
Chinese idiographs. No such effects were present for the optimally (in awareness)