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PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 10

chapter 10 notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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CHAP 10: emotions and cognition
-Without a functioning orbitofrontal cortex and the information that an array of social
emotions provide, people lack judgement. No longer rational. They do not abide by
morals, norms, and conventions.
Historical perspectives on the interplay between passion and reason
-In the western philosophical tradition there has tended to be a suspicion of emotions and
ethical philosophers- stoics, epicureans, was that to lead a good life, emotions should be
extirpated altogether.
-Can emotion be rational? A first meaning has to do with whether the emotions are based
on substantive beliefs. A second meaning of rationality concerns whether emotions help
individuals function effectively in the social world. A third meaning – do emotion guide
cognitive processes like perception, attention, memory, and judgement in principled,
organised, constructive ways?
Emotions as prioritizers of thoughts, goals, and actions
-In very simple animals behaviour is controlled by reflexes. Humans and animals are in a
complex world, they act with purpose.
-The notion that emotions signal conflict, and redirect the individuals action was a focus of
classical Greek dramas, of some of Aristotles work, and much of Freud’s.
-Oatley and Johnson have proposed that emotions involve 2 different kinds of signalling in
the nervous system. One kind of signal that occurs automatically and derives from
primary appraisal. We can call it organizational (fight or flight) because it rather simply
sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, along with an urge to
act in line with this readiness, specific to the particular basic emotion (happiness,
sadness, fear etc.)
-Such an emotion-related signal can have many sources both inside the body and outside in
the environment. It is quick, automatic.
-The second kind of signal derives from secondary appraisal. It is informational. The
information it carries enables us to make mental models of the events and their possible
causes and implications. On the basis of these 2 kinds of signal we act in accordance both
with how we feel and with what we know.
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-Normally the organizational and informational signals occur together to produce an
emotional feeling with a consciously known cause and object, in a way that help the
individual respond to emergent opputrutnities and challenges in the environment.
Three perspectives on the effects of emotions and cognitive functioning
- How do emotions guide thought processes? In what specific ways does fear shift your
perception and judgement and enable you to flee or avoid danger?
Emotion congruence
-According to the perspective by Gorden Bower moods and emotions are associative
networks in the mind. In memory there are always pathways devoted to each emotion, in
which past experiences, images, related concepts, and interpretations of sensations are all
interconnected in a semantic network.
-According to Bowers theory of congruence account we should be better able to learn
material that is congruent with our current emotion, because that memory is more
extensively integrated into active memory.
-In its original form Bowers hypothesis has not been supported because sometimes
memories that are incongruent with mood may be recalled better.
-Eich and his colleagues’ best modification of bower’s hypothesis – according to this
model, emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and judgement
depending on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive
processing.
Feelings as information
-A second approach o the effects of emotion upon cognition is the perspective of feelings
as information
-This perspective assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make
judgements. 2 assumptions: Emotions provide us with a rapid signal triggered by
something in our environment (anger signals state of injustice) and secondly many of the
judgements that we make our too complex to review all the relevant evidence. E.g.
someone asks you how satisfied are you with your political leader: many things come to
your mind- numerous campaign promises, inflation rates, employment rate, so we tend to
rely on a simpler assessment based on our feelings – how do I currently feel about this
person?
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Description
CHAP 10: emotions and cognition - Without a functioning orbitofrontal cortex and the information that an array of social emotions provide, people lack judgement. No longer rational. They do not abide by morals, norms, and conventions. Historical perspectives on the interplay between passion and reason - In the western philosophical tradition there has tended to be a suspicion of emotions and ethical philosophers- stoics, epicureans, was that to lead a good life, emotions should be extirpated altogether. - Can emotion be rational? A first meaning has to do with whether the emotions are based on substantive beliefs. A second meaning of rationality concerns whether emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world. A third meaning do emotion guide cognitive processes like perception, attention, memory, and judgement in principled, organised, constructive ways? Emotions as prioritizers of thoughts, goals, and actions - In very simple animals behaviour is controlled by reflexes. Humans and animals are in a complex world, they act with purpose. - The notion that emotions signal conflict, and redirect the individuals action was a focus of classical Greek dramas, of some of Aristotles work, and much of Freuds. - Oatley and Johnson have proposed that emotions involve 2 different kinds of signalling in the nervous system. One kind of signal that occurs automatically and derives from primary appraisal. We can call it organizational (fight or flight) because it rather simply sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, along with an urge to act in line with this readiness, specific to the particular basic emotion (happiness, sadness, fear etc.) - Such an emotion-related signal can have many sources both inside the body and outside in the environment. It is quick, automatic. - The second kind of signal derives from secondary appraisal. It is informational. The information it carries enables us to make mental models of the events and their possible causes and implications. On the basis of these 2 kinds of signal we act in accordance both with how we feel and with what we know. www.notesolution.com
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