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PSYC18H3 (280)
Chapter 12

chapter 12

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 12- Emotions and mental health in childhood
The case of Peter
-Peter, 11 has problems at school. Has conduct disorder, screams at everyone, is rude and
defiant. Steals money hits his sisters and fights with people at school.
Classifying childhood disorder
-Diagnoses are descriptions of patterns of behaviour. The study of abnormal functioning is
known as psychopathology.
-The main scheme used to diagnose psychiatric problems of adults and children in North
America is the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (DSM-IV)
-Another way of conceptualizing emotional disorders often preferred by psychologists is to
accept that there are no sharp distinctions between having and not having a disorder.
There is a continuum. The method of assessment here involves checklists of symptoms or
behaviour patterns and sometimes questionnaires.
-In middle childhood 2 types of disorders become important: externalizing disorders
defined by anger, hostility, aggression, stealing, and lying, and internalizing disorders
which include anxiety and depression with tendencies to withdraw.
How are emotions involved in childrens disorders?
-2 principal emotion-based externalizing disorders of childhood are called oppositional
defiant disorder and conduct disorder.
-The conditions for oppositional defiant disorder is that over a 6 month period the child
frequently displays 4 or more of the following behaviours that lead to impairment of
school or social life- loses temper, argues with adults, defies or refuses adult requests or
rules, does things that will annoy other people, blames others for his mistakes, is touchy
or easily annoyed by others, is angry and resentful, is spiteful or vindictive.
-The criteria for conduct disorder include more seriously antisocial behaviour such as
missing school before age 13, stealing, fire-setting, sexual assault, physical fights, cruelty
to people or animals and use of weapons.
-As to internalizing disorders the 2 main are anxiety and depression. Anxiety disorders are
fears that are abnormal in intensity, duration, and how they are elicited. One disabling
syndrome is is overanxious disorder in which there is excessive or unrealistic anxiety or
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worry with marked tension for atleast6 months across a range of areas: future events,
feelings of incompetence, self-consciousness, and concerns about previous performances.
-Separation anxiety disorder is defined as excessive anxiety for at least 2 about separation
from the child’s main attachment figures.
-In major depressive episode a child feels either very low in mood or has no interest in
anything for atleast 2 weeks. For the diagnoses the child must also have 4 other
symptoms: such as weight changes, sleep disturbance, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness,
inability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
What is disordered?
There are several hypotheses about the relationship between emotion and disorder.
Predominance of one emotion system
-The most common view of disorders of emotion in childhood is that one emotion
becomes prominent. It dominates other possible experiences.
-A disorder would be a balance among emotions which, instead of being responsive to
what happened in the world, is biased towards pre-established patterns of certain kinds,
for instance patterns of angry emotions in an externalising disorder or sad and fearful
emotions in an internalizing disorder.
-Experiment: aggressive and non-aggressive children were read vignettes or shown video
tapes in which something negative happened – one child bumped into another one – then
they were asked to say whether the perpetrator was being deliberately mean. The
aggressive children were more likely to say that the perpetrator was being intentionally
hostile. Meta-analysis has shown that this kind of bias of appraisal is substantial and has
been frequently found in aggressive children.
-Another appraisal pattern is the depressogenic attribution style. As compared to non
depressed, depressed children are more likely to make attributions for negative events that
are stable (it will always be this way), internal (it is my fault), and global (all situations
will be like this).
Inappropriate emotional responses: children with a disorder react to events with deviant
emotional responses: laughing when someone else is sistressed, crying when nothing has
happened. Their emotional responses are unsettling and other people find it hard to make sense
of them.
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Description
Chapter 12- Emotions and mental health in childhood The case of Peter - Peter, 11 has problems at school. Has conduct disorder, screams at everyone, is rude and defiant. Steals money hits his sisters and fights with people at school. Classifying childhood disorder - Diagnoses are descriptions of patterns of behaviour. The study of abnormal functioning is known as psychopathology. - The main scheme used to diagnose psychiatric problems of adults and children in North America is the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (DSM-IV) - Another way of conceptualizing emotional disorders often preferred by psychologists is to accept that there are no sharp distinctions between having and not having a disorder. There is a continuum. The method of assessment here involves checklists of symptoms or behaviour patterns and sometimes questionnaires. - In middle childhood 2 types of disorders become important: externalizing disorders defined by anger, hostility, aggression, stealing, and lying, and internalizing disorders which include anxiety and depression with tendencies to withdraw. How are emotions involved in childrens disorders? - 2 principal emotion-based externalizing disorders of childhood are called oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. - The conditions for oppositional defiant disorder is that over a 6 month period the child frequently displays 4 or more of the following behaviours that lead to impairment of school or social life- loses temper, argues with adults, defies or refuses adult requests or rules, does things that will annoy other people, blames others for his mistakes, is touchy or easily annoyed by others, is angry and resentful, is spiteful or vindictive. - The criteria for conduct disorder include more seriously antisocial behaviour such as missing school before age 13, stealing, fire-setting, sexual assault, physical fights, cruelty to people or animals and use of weapons. - As to internalizing disorders the 2 main are anxiety and depression. Anxiety disorders are fears that are abnormal in intensity, duration, and how they are elicited. One disabling syndrome is is overanxious disorder in which there is excessive or unrealistic anxiety or www.notesolution.com
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