Textbook Notes (381,007)
CA (168,313)
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PSYC18H3 (283)
Chapter 14

chapter 14 notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 14- psychotherapy, consciousness and well being
The basic idea of psychoanalytic therapy
-Sigmund Freud’s first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in a
patients earlier life. Freuds therapy was aimed at recalling the trauma, enabling it to
become conscious, allowing the emotions associated with it to be experienced and
expressed, thus freeing the patient from the traumas harmful effects.
-According to him neurotic people suffer from inner conflict like both feeling sexually
attracted to someone and feeling at the same time inhibited by the prohibitions of society.
Therapys focus on the emotions
-Most therapies involve a close relationship with therapist, talk, and suggestion. Therapy is
an interaction with another person in which as a patient or client one can discover some
of the properties of ones emotion schemas – typically schemas of anxiety, anger, and
despair – and can change to some extent how these schemas operate.
Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating
-The distinctive feature of psychoanalytic therapy is the recognition of transference of the
client to the therapist. The idea of transference was discussed by Freud.
-The patient was to lie on a couch, narrate the story of her life, and say whatever came to
mind. In turn, Freud suggested interpretations to fill gaps in the story.
-Transference is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody ways
of relating to others that have become habitual. Such attitudes and emotions are projected
onto people in the present including the therapist.
-Susan Anderson and Serena Chen performed experiments on transference. They use the
term relational self for the beliefs and emotions of selfhood that derive from earlier
relationships.
-Procedure ask participants to write 14 sentences of description of description of
themselves in relation with 2 significant others, one for whom they had positive feelings
and one for whom they had negative feelings. The experimenters wanted to see how far
these relational traits from the past might affect a relationship with a person whom the
participant meets for the first time.
-Then they showed people a description of a new person that resembled their own previous
description of a significant other. Their facial expressions were more of positive emotions
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when description reminded them of the significant other they liked than when the
description resembled a significant other that they did not like.
-Psychoanalytic therapy is designed to recognize transferences, and to bring them to
consciousness.
-Transference occurs in almost every consultation with a physician as we find ourselves
hoping he or she will protect and look after us.
-There is a possibility that when the partly unconscious terms of the schema in which the
client is lodged become conscious, the client can choose a new solution in the
relationship with the therapist, and this kind of new solution can generalize to other
relationships outside therapy.
Cognitive – behavioural therapy: changing emotions by thought
-The idea that we can change our emotions by thinking about them in the right way can be
traced back to the epicureans and Stoics, 2 schools of ethical philosophy in which,
following Aristotle, emotions were understood as evaluations of events in relation to
desires or goals.
-The epicureans developed ideas of natural human sociality that influenced both American
and French revolutions. The ideas of the stoic are thought to have influenced the
acceptance of Christianity by the romans following the conversion of the emperor
Constantine.
-Epicureans were the first in the west to discover the unconscious according to Nussbaum.
They pointed out that people fear death, although it is irrational to do so. The epicureans
taught that one should live in a simple way, and enjoy simple pleasures.
-The stoics were more radical than epicureans. They thought that because emotions derive
from desires, therefore to free oneself from crippling and destructive emotions, one
should extirpate almost all desires.
-The stoic understanding was that most emotions are damaging to the self and to society.
-Epicureans and Stoics thought of philosophy as a cure for the soul, and focussed on
emotions as the chief sources of the souls diseases.
-As Christianity took over heritage of the Stoics the bad desires and bad thoughts which
the Stoics sought to extirpate became the 7 deadly sins.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14- psychotherapy, consciousness and well being The basic idea of psychoanalytic therapy - Sigmund Freuds first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in a patients earlier life. Freuds therapy was aimed at recalling the trauma, enabling it to become conscious, allowing the emotions associated with it to be experienced and expressed, thus freeing the patient from the traumas harmful effects. - According to him neurotic people suffer from inner conflict like both feeling sexually attracted to someone and feeling at the same time inhibited by the prohibitions of society. Therapys focus on the emotions - Most therapies involve a close relationship with therapist, talk, and suggestion. Therapy is an interaction with another person in which as a patient or client one can discover some of the properties of ones emotion schemas typically schemas of anxiety, anger, and despair and can change to some extent how these schemas operate. Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating - The distinctive feature of psychoanalytic therapy is the recognition of transference of the client to the therapist. The idea of transference was discussed by Freud. - The patient was to lie on a couch, narrate the story of her life, and say whatever came to mind. In turn, Freud suggested interpretations to fill gaps in the story. - Transference is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody ways of relating to others that have become habitual. Such attitudes and emotions are projected onto people in the present including the therapist. - Susan Anderson and Serena Chen performed experiments on transference. They use the term relational self for the beliefs and emotions of selfhood that derive from earlier relationships. - Procedure ask participants to write 14 sentences of description of description of themselves in relation with 2 significant others, one for whom they had positive feelings and one for whom they had negative feelings. The experimenters wanted to see how far these relational traits from the past might affect a relationship with a person whom the participant meets for the first time. - Then they showed people a description of a new person that resembled their own previous description of a significant other. Their facial expressions were more of positive emotions www.notesolution.com
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