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Psychology (10,000)
Chapter 1

PSYC23H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Urie Bronfenbrenner, Parental Leave, Temporary Assistance For Needy Families


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC23H3
Professor
David Haley
Chapter
1

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PSYC23: Developmental Psychobiology
Week 2: Adverse Childhood Experiences
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2004). Young Children Develop in an Environment of
Relationships: Working Paper No. 1. Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
A eioet of elatioships is uial fo the deelopet of a hild’s ai ahitetue, hih las the
foundation for later outcomes such as academic performance, mental health, and interpersonal skills.
However, a of ou atio’s poliies fail to oside the ipotae of adult-child relationships for child
well-being. This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child explains how these
relationships shape child development, and identifies ways to
strengthen policies that affect those relationships in the early childhood years.
The Issue:
Health deelopet depeds o the ualit ad eliailit of a oug hild’s elatioships ith the
important people in his/her life, both within and outside the family
o Ee the deelopet of a hild’s ai ahitetue depeds o the estalishet of these
relationships
Growth-pootig elatioships ae ased o the hild’s otiuous gie-and-take (see ad etu
interaction) with a human partner who provides what nothing else in the world can offer
epeiees that ae idiidualized to the hild’s pesoalit stle; that uilds o his/he o iteests,
apailities, ad iitiatie; that shape the hild’s self-awareness; and that stimulate the growth of
his/her heart & mind
Young children experience their world as an environment of relationships, and these relationships
affect virtually all aspects of their development
The ualit ad stailit of a hild’s hua elatioships i the early years lay the foundation for a
wide range of later developmental outcomes that really matter (i.e., self-confidence, achievement in
school later, knowing the difference between right and wrong, and capacity to develop friendships)
Relationships are the atie igediets of the eioet’s ifluee o health hua
development they incorporate the qualities that best promote competence and well-being (such as
individualized responsiveness mutual action-and-interaction, and an emotional connection to another
human being, be it a parent, peer, or grandparent, teacher/coach, etc.)
o Relationships engage children in the human community in ways that help them define who they
are, what they can become, and how & why they are important to other people
In order to develop normally, a child requires progressively more complex joint activity with one or
oe adults ho hae a iatioal eotioal elatioship ith the hild. “oeod’s got to e az
aout that kid. That’s ue oe. Fist, last, alas Urie Bronfenbrenner
What Science Tells Us:
Nurturing and stable relationships with caring adults are essential to healthy human development
beginning from birth
Early secure attachments contribute to the growth of a broad range of competencies, including a love
of learning, a comfortable sense of oneself, positive social skills, successful relationships,
understanding of emotions, commitment, morality, and other aspects of human relationships
o Establishing successful relationships with adults and other children provides a foundation of
capacities that children will use for a lifetime
The sere ad retur iteratio etee paret & a in which young children naturally reach
out for interaction through babbling, facial expressions, and gestures and adults respond with the
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