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PSYC35H3 Chapter Notes -Neuropsychology, Dextroamphetamine, Synaptogenesis

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Chapter 1 - Introduction
What is Clinican Neuropsychology
-Clinical Neuropsychology: division of psychology that specializes in clinical assessment and treatment of
patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits
oHow the brain functions in the normal individual and what happened to an individual with brian
oApplied as it deals with assessment, diagnosis and treamtment opposed to looking at brain and function
-Experimental Neuropsychology: field of psychology that focus on brain- behaviour relations
oDescribed strutures and functions opposed to assessment, diagnosis and treatment
Historical Background
- clinical neurpsychology new study, 20th century 1st by Osler
- used in the APA meeting in 1948
- Major use of term neuropsychology related to study relationship b/w brain and behaviour
Ancient Hypothesis to Modern Theories of Brain Functioning
Neolithic Period or stone age
-Trephination: oldest known surgical technique in which a small peieve of bone if removed from the skull
leaving a hole – done for medical and religious reasons
omeans to relieve pressure caused by brian swelling
obehaviours resembled delusions/hallucinations or traumatic brian injury
oreligious means of releasing demons – behaviour attributed to spiritual causes
They Egyptians
- Third Dynasty – lack brain knowledge
oIn mummification, organs were taken out and preserved but the brain was discarded
oHeart was not removed, it held the mind and soul
-Edwin Smith Surgical papyrus: early Eygiptian manuscript whoch described the techniques used to treat
various forms of difficulties, including brain trauma – no indication that an actual surgery was performed –
referenced what are now known as meninges (layer of tissure covering the brain) and the cerebrospinal fluid
oIncluded ways to determine which patience could be treated, patience hwose status was questionable and
which patience were too severely injured for treatment
oIncludes an account of 48 inviduals with physical injuries – ways to reduce intracrainial hemorrhaging
and removal of fragments of bone from eat canl and blood clots form the sinuses
oPerscriptions for head wounds
Mixing of lion, crock, snake and apply to heads so body is uninhabitable to evil spirits
oEbers Papyrus: some perscriptions used today, other remain to be supernatural in nature
oHerophilus and Erasistatus were 1st to propse the brain as center of reason
Vivisection ***
oTheory of Venticular localization hypothesis- later- cell doctrine that fluid dilled compartments of the
brain were responsible for higher mental and spiritual processes
Cavities were thought of as cells, lateral ventricles forming the 1st cell, the third ventricle the
second cell while the fourth ventricles comprised of the 3rd cell
-Brain behaviour relationships: a relationship that exists b/w certain functions of the brain and overt behaviour
oWhen a function of a brain is thought t cause/influence a particular behaviour
Ventricular Localization Hypothesis: hypothesis that mental and spiritual processes reside within the ventricular
Cell Doctrine: term synonymous with the ventricular localization hypothesis ie: that the ventricles were the location of
higher order mental and spatial processes

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Ancient Greeks
- interested in brain behaviour relationships.
- Heraclitus called the mind an enormous space whose coundaties we could never reach
oRadical idea that universe is in constant
- Pythagoras (mathematician) 1st to suggest that brain was organ responsible for human thought
-Brain hypothesis: brain is source of human thought and behaviour
- Hippocrates (founder of modern medicane) expanded this
oHippocratic Oath: an agreement that Hippocrates demanded of physicans ensuring that they would do
no harm in their quest to appropriately treat their patients
Would not aid in suicide, no abortion, ,make personal information public
oBelieved as a central tenet, the brain controlled all sensing and movements
1st to indicate damage on one side effects other side of body
Contralateral Control: the premise that one side of the brain controls the motor and se
Stressed benefits of sound body ,healthy environment and exercise
Above all patient is to be treated as a whole Holistic medicine: type of medical practice that
treats the entire patient; involves physical, psychological and spiritual aspects of healing – mind,
body and soul
Adopted Pythagoras view of humors: blood with air, yeallow bile with fire, phlegm with water,
black bile with earth.
Each substance associated with an organ: blood with heart, yellow bile with liver, phlegm
with brain, black bile with spleen
oIdea to restore the balance of humors
- Plato- soul divided into 3 functions: appetite, reason, and temper which resided in the brain
oChose brain as it was closest to heavens
oMind body question: philosophical questions regarding the relationship b.e the physical body and the
spiritual mind – continues to be an issue today
Discusses essence of minf, connection b/w what was thought of as immaterial (soul) with
something thought to be material (body)
oDescribed physical health as the harmony b.w mind and body
Similar to Hippocratic phusician view of holistic medicine
- Aristotle (Platoss student) disagreed with him and believed the heart rather than the brain as main organ of
rational thought
oCardiac hypothesis: hypothesis that heart is the center of rational thought
The Romans
- Galen- 1st experimental physiologist and physician – only valid souces of data were direct observation
- Used animals and wounds of Gladiators to study human body -> much of work destroyed by fire
-Ventrical localization theory: ventricles in the brain housed animla spirits, which were produced within what is
now refered to as the choroid plexus
- Believed the earlier theory that functions of the body and brain were based on a balance of bodily fluids humors:
belief that a balance of bodily fluids including blood, mucus, yellow and black bile were responsible for the
functioning of the body and the brain
The middle ages /Dark ages
- Egyptians, Greeks and Romans
- Proposed structures and functions of the brainw ere inaccurate as many of the warlier writings were unavailable
and not based on scientific knowledge of the workigs of anatomy and physiology
- Return to superstitious beleifs – devil possession
- Views of Aristotle rediscovered and translated – broadrer audience , considered sacred, questioning unacceptable
- Move wa\\away from Ventricular localization theory started in 13th century with Magnus
o Behaviour resulted from combination of brain structures, cortex, midbrain and cerebellum
Renaissance Europe
- begun in Italy mid 14th century and ended during the 16th century

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oend of medieval Europe, allowered intellectual freedom
- Rapid expansion of knowledge
- Plague of 1300 Black Death: panademic led to a questioning of the existing religious, political and social
structures and led to freer inquiry and thought
- Leonardo da Vinci (15th century) drew detailed diagrams of the human body – experiments on cattle to determine
the structure of ventricles
oEvidence that functioning of ventricles does not influence thought
oAfter more experimenting on cerebrospinal fluid, continued to believe ventricular localization hypothesis
of brain functioning
- Vesalius – 1st accurate book on human anatomy entitled on the workings of the human body
oProved Galen’s ventricular flow was incorrect
oTo understand human body, cant study other animal s
- Decartes disagreed with the tripartite soul intrudiced by Plato
obeleived in separation of mind and body
mind as immaterial, withour substance where body functioned similar to a machine
odualism: mind and body as separate entities – mental properties vs physical properties
oMonism: only one basic fundmental reality, all existence is one reality, mind and body operate according
to the same principles – no fundamental differences
omental processes resided within the pineal gland: not only structure not composed of bilaterally
symmetrical halves
today not understood, believed to be involved in sleep regulation and melatonin
- Thomas Willis, study of blood circulation “circle of Willis”
oClinical evidence from living patients with mental disorders and observed degeneration in autopsy
oCerebral gyri controlled memeory and will, imagination in corpus callosum, cerebellum thought to
control voluntary and involuntary systems – at this time pons and medulla considered part of cerebellum
o1st in this era to divide brain into dunctional parts based on comparative anatomy, theorey and clinical
practices. – lead others to look at this
- Swedenborg (following Willis) concluded cerebral cortex was the source of understanding, thinking, judging,
and willing.
oCertain functions represented at different anatomical site of the cortex – lozalization of function as means
of understanding the difficultires whch arise in patientce with dif pathologies
!8th century: localization theory
-Localization of brain functioning: theory that certain abilities are localized to certain areas of the brian
- Gall – certain physiological characteristics of individuals appeared to reflect their intellectual.cognitive abilities
oCorrelated 27 faculties of the mind with skull features and lcaed these abilities on maps of bother
oPhrenology: inaccuarate theory, bumps on the ehad related to certain abilities residing within the brain:
led to belief in reading bumps and increasing ability by rubbing the corresponding bumps
lead to study of brian in nonproductive way
odiscoveries in neruoanatomy and neurophysiology
oproposed the cortex, sulci and gyri were functioning parts of the brain – not just covering the pineal body
ocortex sends information to the spinal cord to command movements of the muscles
odiscovered role of the corpus callosum in communication b/w hemispheres
oSpurzheim (Galls student) disagreed with Gals idea of bad functions, bad traits were caused by
inderdevelopment of the specific functions
oFlourens- disputed Gall, no localization of functions within the cortex.
Ablation: surgery of removing part of the brain led to generalized, not localized, diorderd
No specificlocaliztion ability, rather amout/extent of danmage mattered
greater mass of tissue damage = greater dysfunction
brain operated in integrated fashion, opposed to discrete
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