Textbook Notes (290,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC37H3 (100)
Chapter 1

PSYC37H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: World War I

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Standardized tests tend to disadvantage women and ethnic minorities
Tests such as the LSAT and GRE are the most difficult modern psychological tests
Basic Concepts
Test: is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the understanding and
prediction of a behaviour
Example - A spelling test measures how well someone spells or the extent to which someone has
learned to spell a certain list of words
A test may not measure your full understanding of the material, because a test measures only a
sample of behaviour and error is associated with a sampling process
Test scores are not a perfect measure of a certain behaviour, but they do help in the prediction
Item: is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly
This response can be scored or evaluated
The data they produce are explicit and subject to scientific inquiry
Are specific questions that make up the test
Psychological test: is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human begins that
pertain to behaviour
Some attempt to measure the extent to which someone might engage in a particular overt
(observable behaviour)
Covert behaviour takes place within an individual, thus cannot be observed
Measures past or current behaviour or predicts future behaviour
The meanings of scores can change dramatically, depending on how a well-defined sample of individuals

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scores on a test. To avoid this problem, scales are used
Scales: relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution
Individual tests: the test administrator gives the test to only one person at a tem
Group test: can be administrated to more than one person at a time by a single examiner
Tests can be categorized according to the type of behaviour they measure, such as ability tests
There are different types of ability - achievement, aptitude, and intelligence
Achievement: refers to previous learning
Aptitude: refers to the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill
Intelligence: refers to a persons general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing
circumstances, think abstractly, and profit from experience
All three terms are encompassed by the term human ability
Personality tests: are related to the overt and covert dispositions of the individual
Tendency of a person to show a particular behaviour or response in a given situation
Measures typical behaviour
Structured personality tests: provide a statement (usually of the self report variety), and require
the subject to choose between two or more alternative responses such as true or false”
Projective personality test: either stimulus (test material) or the required responses or both are
The individual is asked to provide a spontaneous response
If an inkblot is presented, the persons interpretation of the inkblot will reflect his or her unique
Psychological testing: refers to all the possible uses, applications, and underlying concepts of
psychological and educational tests. The main purpose is to evaluate individual differences or variations

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among individuals
Principles, Applications, and Issues of Psychological Testing
1. Principles of psychological testing: refers to the basic concepts and fundamental ideas that underlie all
psychological and educational tests
Reliability: refers to the accuracy, dependability, consistency, or repeatability of test scores
The degree to which test scores are free of measurement errors
Validity: refers to the meaning and usefulness of test results
The degree to which to a certain inference or interpretation based on a test is appropriate
“What does the psychological test measure” means for what interference is the test valid”
Another principle concerns how a test is constructed
Some test administrations are easy, while others must be administered in a highly specific way
2. Applications of psychological testing: provides a detailed analysis of most tests and how they are used
or applied
Interview: is a method of gathering information through verbal interactions and has served as a
major technique of gathering psychological information
Data from interviews provide an important complement to test results
3. Issues of psychological testing: refers to many social and theoretical issues
Tests have been accused of being discriminatory or biased against some groups thus have been
coming under the scrutiny of the law
Historical Perspective
Early Antecedents
Testing originate from China, where the Chinese had a sophisticated civil service testing program more
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