PSYC37H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: California Psychological Inventory

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21 Apr 2012
Chapter 9a
Assessment Within the Normal Spectrum
Psychological tests like MMPI or Rorschach weren’t really made for the sole purpose of
employing them on a normal spectrum
o Rorschach today used to see psychological symptoms that doesn’t really “fit neatly” into
the category depicted by the DSM-IV
Initially this test was invented to identify themes in the mind ( “X-ray of the
Sometimes a test is made to help practitioner attain his goal of finding something specific
o Using the instruments made for psychopathology may not always help
Normality and abnormality differ by in terms of grey harder to differentiate
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is one of the most widely employed personality tests of all time
while the California Psychological Inventory is a strong empirical measure
Broad Band Tests of Normal Personality
Broad band test- measures full range of functioning, as opposed to limited aspects
o Developed in 1940s
Throughout history many have tried to fully figure out personality and define what it really is
o Many different approaches have their own interpretation
Typological approach
Dimensional approach
Dimensional is better than typological but typological is popular; no real
one is better, ambiguous
Myers-Briggs type Indicator (MBTI)
Forced choice self-report inventory published in 1962
Based on Carl Jung’s theory of Personality and using that trying to classify people
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Most used test; taken by 2 million people a year
Comes in different forms:
o Form M- 93 item test which is given by trained psychologist; self-scoring test
o Form G- 126 item test
o Form Q-144 item test offered online
Regardless of version MBTI scored in 4 independent polarities:
o Extraversion-introversion
Extraversion (E)- directs energy outward; talks to people
Introversion (I) - directs energy inward to their inner world
o Sensing-intuition
Sensing (S)- uses immediate senses
Intuition (N)- relationships or possibilities that have been worked out beyond
conscious mind
o Thinking- feeling
Thinking (T)- logic/objectivity
Feeling (F)- reliance on personal values and social harmony
o Judging-perceiving
Judging (J)- decisiveness and closure
Perceiving (P)- flexibility and spontaneity
The tester is given a 4 letter code telling them what they are (i.e. ENTJ-
extraversion, intuition, thinking, judging)
There are 2 poles to each dimension therefore 24 = 16 different personality types
It is important to note that these are all just descriptors and there isn’t one that is better than
the other
o Being at either poles of a dimension doesn’t depict one as good and one as bad but just
different modes which comes with its own implications
The 16 different types are not equally represented in the population and different groups have a
preference to a specific 4 letter code
o 231 Midwestern Uni students seemed to be more common with ENFP
This test is based on large samples and from that tables are made to interpret different combos
of letters ( i.e. occupations vs. 4 letter code)
Useful if you trying to figure out a possible career
Stability of the 4 letter code is for the most part reliable when doing test-retest and interval
between time tests
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o 41% retained all 4 letters from test to retest
o 38% retained all 3 letters from test to retest
o 17% retained all 2 letters from test to retest
o 3% retained all 1 letters from test to retest
>400 references were cited on pyscINFO that showed this test was valid
Furnham and colleagues in 2003 tested 900adults with the MBTI and the NEO-PI-R
o It was found that MBTI had validity through the positive correlations that were
o At same time the negative correlations were as predicted and was consistent with the
theoretical understandings by the authors
The other recent forms of the MBTI offer even more info when doing the test
o Form Q- not only breaks down result into 4 dimensions but within each dimensions also
divides into 5 facets (refer to table 9.1 pg. 377)
One problem with this test is the cost of administering it ($10-$30 /individual)
o Test publishers want to make money but the scholarly researchers don’t have funding to
pay for it so they can give to their participants
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
Published 1957, true false test designed expressly to measure the dimension of normal
2 forms:
o CPI 434 has 434 items
o CPI 260- available online has 434 items; provides clear picture of examinee by using
descriptors based on the ordinary language of everyday life
20 folk measures of personality
7 work-related scales
3 broad vectors
CPI 260 more favoured since its fast and easy to administer
3 personality scales measuring test taking attitudes (validity scales)
o Good impression (Gi)- assess extent to which the individual presents a favourable image
to others
o Communality (Cm)- measures unusual responses that might arise from carelessness or
faking bad
o Well-being (Wb)- measures serious emotional problems
These scales have mean of 50 and of 10
The CPI is reliable among test-retest
o Also scored on 3 broad dimensions/vectors
Vector 1 (v.1)- 2 polarities: extraversion or introversion
Vector 2 (v.2)- 2 polarities: rule favouring or rule questioning
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