Chapter 9b.docx

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CHAPTER 9b Psychological Assessment
Positive Psychological Assessment
Since WWII clinical psychological has been all about taking off the symptoms and syndromes
people have
We are so keen on finding and doing research on diseases and treatments for disorders
o We neglect any attention on the positive perspectives
Positive Psychology- scientific and practical pursuit of optimal human
functioning
Recent movement to balance the negatives
Martin Seligman founder of movement
Some stuff in positive psyc includes: altruism, tolerance, ethics
Positive Psyc Assessment is one aspect of positive psyc
o Measurement of specific human strengths
Hundreds of new instrument created to measure, assess, and test positive psyc
Snyder and Lopez in 2003 published 24 chapter book on all the new
instruments
Assessment of creativity
Simple definition of creativity and the assessment towards it still elusive and problematic
Hundreds of test but most question validity
o Criterion problem
John B. Watson in his terms thought creativity- poem or brilliant essay is mere product of
shifting words around until a new pattern is hit upon
o With his simple view many started to formulate more thoughtful perspectives
PAGE 398***- bunch of them
Conceptual definition- emphasize novelty and usefulness of creative product but also suggest
that creativity is a particular kind of process as well
Operational definition harder to formulate
Creativity studied as cognitive process, personal characteristics, and behavioural products
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Creativity as process
Wertheimer 1945- creativity arises when the thinker grasps the essential features of a problem
and their relation to a final solution (the “aha!”)
Wallas 1926- insights after period of incubation where unconscious mind rearranging features
puzzle while conscious mind taking time off
Mednick1962- creativity is capacity to combine remote associations; creativity matter of novel
arrangements of unusual associations to a given stimuli
o McCormick- GRAIN REAPER
o Developed Remote Association test (RAT)
40 min paper-pencil test
Inter item reliability consistent over 0.9
String of three words and one has to think of a fourth word that fits the
three words
Early studies showed positive correlation between high RAT scores and
creativity
`Later studies didn’t show much of a positive correlation
Oschse says that RAT predicts verbal fluency but not creativity
Creativity as personal characteristics
Guilfords was one of 1st researchers to define creativity in terms of the person
o Abilities that are most characteristic of creative people
This help expansion on personal characteristics of a creative person
o High and low creative people brought together and put through personality measures
and standard inventories
Harrington 1975- Composite creative Personality Scale (CCPS)
o Consists of 42 self-checked adjectives that empirically show creative from non-creative
o It not only embraces positive but looks into megative terms too (cynical, etc)
When looking at creative people its always spontaneous , more adjusted and nonconforming
o So problem is when doing these tests one creative personality may not fit everyone
Sternberg (2002)- creative indivdiuals not because of traits but the decision to be creative
o Stubborn dedication to be creative; even if awards for their endeavours are lacking
Creativity as product
Most enduring definitions uses products as a distinguishing sing
o Creative people make products that meet certain criteria
Jackson and Messick made 4 criterias to crerativity:
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o Novelty- products are new and represent new applications
o Appropriateness- product must be appropriate to context, not just novelty
o Transcendence of constraints- goes beyond traditional
o Coalescence of meaning- value of creative products may not be apparent at first, the
full significance may only be appreciated with time
These criteria’s don’t really have a measure aspect to creativity
Guilford ‘s divergent thinking- thinking is a different directions
o Convergent thinking- production of a single correct answer determined ny facts and
reason; essential for creative discovery
Western civilization place heavy emphasis on this
o Came up with dozens of epxeriments to meaure divergent
Christensen-Guilford Fluency Test
Alternate use-list possible and unusual use for novel item like a brick
Consequence- list possible consequences for a specific hypothetical
event
Ideational Fluency- name things that belong in a given class
Guilfords test were never mainstream just faded
o But theories really helped a lot
E.Paul used Guilfords influence who developed group of tests used today
o Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)
Assess a global cognitive construct of creativity-style of thinking that’s essential
to be creative
TTCT substest does not assess motivation, expertise, intelligence
Comes in 2 forms A and B
Has 2 parts:
Verbal 6 subtests:
o Asking questions
o Guessing causes
o Guessing consequences
1st three of these based on same stimulus card, a pen ,m
and drawing of 2 human like figures
o Product improvement- child given toy and asked how ot could
be better
o Unusual uses- given object and said how it could be used
differently
o Just suppose- list risks and benefits from improbable situation
Verbal subtest are scored in 3 criteria:
Fluency- raw 3 of relevant ideas
Originality- inventiveness
Flexibility- flexibility of categories of ideas
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